Chrystal Mary Paulos

TitleEndowed Chair, Cecilia and Vincent Peng Endowed Chair in Melanoma and Cutaneous
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 955
HO 612C
86 Jonathan Lucas St.
Phone843-792-3210
Fax843-792-9588
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Our laboratory focuses on developing novel T-cell immunotherapies for patients with advanced cancer. Our strategy is based on the use of mouse models to develop human clinical trials that effectively harness the patient’s own immune system to kill cancer.

    We study new ways to improve adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy, which involves removal of T cells from the patient, their expansion/manipulation ex-vivo, followed by their return to patient preconditioned with lymphodepletion via chemotherapy agents and/or total body irradiation.

    Lymphodepletion significantly enhances the efficacy of ACT therapies. However, host conditioning with lymphodepletion is not the only factor that positively impacts clinical outcome. We and other investigators have found that the functional properties of T cells are critical for successful tumor immunotherapy.

    We have very recently found that CD4 and CD8 T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17 and Tc17 cells, respectively) mediate robust tumor regression. Additional investigation revealed that the expansion of Th17/Tc17 cells with the costimulatory molecule ICOS but not CD28 further improved their function and their ability to eradiate large tumors (see Fig1). Although ICOS-expanded Th17/Tc17 cells mediate potent tumor regression, the cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying how ICOS signaling drives the differentiation and expansion of cells that produce high levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IFN-gamma compared to those stimulated with CD28 remains incompletely elucidated. Thus, we are now investigating key transcription factors regulated by ICOS versus CD28 that distinctly impact their functional fate. We are also investigating the mechanism governing the in vivo effectiveness of ICOS-expanded tumor-specific Tc17/Th17 cells using the clinically relevant transgenic ACT mouse models of cancer created in Dr. Nicholas Restifo’s laboratory.
    In summary, research in the Paulos laboratory will focus on broadening the utility and efficacy of the ACT approach. We are particularly interested in improving host preconditioning regimens as well as augmenting various T-cell subsets by ex-vivo and in-vivo manipulation with novel cytokine/chemical cocktails and with ICOS agonists (as well as with other costimulatory molecules). We believe that our investigations will provide vital information on how to build on the next generation of T-cell based immunotherapies for cancer as well as for autoimmunity and infectious diseases.

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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Ascierto PA, Bifulco C, Ciardiello F, Demaria S, Emens LA, Ferris R, Formenti SC, Galon J, Khleif SN, Kirchhoff T, McQuade J, Odunsi K, Patnaik A, Paulos CM, Taube JM, Timmerman J, Fox BA, Hwu P, Puzanov I. Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the immunotherapy bridge (December 2nd-3rd, 2020, Italy). J Transl Med. 2021 Jun 02; 19(1):238. PMID: 34078406.
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    2. Wallace K, Nahhas GJ, Bookhout C, Lewin DN, Paulos CM, Nikolaishvili-Feinberg N, Cohen SM, Guglietta S, Bakhtiari A, Camp ER, Hill EG, Baron JA, Wu JD, Alekseyenko AV. Preinvasive Colorectal Lesions of African Americans Display an Immunosuppressive Signature Compared to Caucasian Americans. Front Oncol. 2021; 11:659036. PMID: 33987094.
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    3. Rangel Rivera GO, Knochelmann HM, Dwyer CJ, Smith AS, Wyatt MM, Rivera-Reyes AM, Thaxton JE, Paulos CM. Fundamentals of T Cell Metabolism and Strategies to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:645242. PMID: 33815400.
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    4. Keilson JM, Knochelmann HM, Paulos CM, Kudchadkar RR, Lowe MC. The evolving landscape of immunotherapy in solid tumors. J Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar; 123(3):798-806. PMID: 33595890.
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    5. Szopa IM, Granica M, Bujak JK, Labedz A, Blaszczyk M, Paulos CM, Majchrzak-Kuligowska K. Effective Activation and Expansion of Canine Lymphocytes Using a Novel Nano-Sized Magnetic Beads Approach. Front Immunol. 2021; 12:604066. PMID: 33679741.
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    6. Curran T, Sun Z, Gerry B, Findlay VJ, Wallace K, Li Z, Paulos C, Ford M, Rubinstein MP, Chung D, Camp ER. Differential immune signatures in the tumor microenvironment are associated with colon cancer racial disparities. Cancer Med. 2021 03; 10(5):1805-1814. PMID: 33560598.
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    7. Ascierto PA, Butterfield LH, Campbell K, Daniele B, Dougan M, Emens LA, Formenti S, Janku F, Khleif SN, Kirchhoff T, Morabito A, Najjar Y, Nathan P, Odunsi K, Patnaik A, Paulos CM, Reinfeld BI, Skinner HD, Timmerman J, Puzanov I. Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the "Immunotherapy Bridge" (December 4th-5th, 2019, Naples, Italy). J Transl Med. 2021 01 06; 19(1):13. PMID: 33407605.
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    8. Howell AV, Gebregziabher M, Thiers BH, Paulos CM, Wrangle JM, Hunt KJ, Wallace K. Immune checkpoint inhibitors retain effectiveness in older patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma. J Geriatr Oncol. 2021 Apr; 12(3):394-401. PMID: 33132048.
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    9. Ascierto PA, Bifulco C, Galon J, Garbe C, Khleif SN, McQuade J, Odunsi K, Okada H, Paulos CM, Quezada SA, Tawbi HA, Timmerman J, Trinchieri G, Butterfield LH, Puzanov I. The Great Debate at 'Immunotherapy Bridge', Naples, December 5, 2019. J Immunother Cancer. 2020 08; 8(2). PMID: 32843491.
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    10. Nelson MH, Knochelmann HM, Bailey SR, Huff LW, Bowers JS, Majchrzak-Kuligowska K, Wyatt MM, Rubinstein MP, Mehrotra S, Nishimura MI, Armeson KE, Giresi PG, Zilliox MJ, Broxmeyer HE, Paulos CM. Identification of human CD4+ T cell populations with distinct antitumor activity. Sci Adv. 2020 Jul; 6(27). PMID: 32937437.
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    11. Knochelmann HM, Dwyer CJ, Smith AS, Bowers JS, Wyatt MM, Nelson MH, Rangel Rivera GO, Horton JD, Krieg C, Armeson K, Lesinski GB, Rubinstein MP, Li Z, Paulos CM. IL6 Fuels Durable Memory for Th17 Cell-Mediated Responses to Tumors. Cancer Res. 2020 09 15; 80(18):3920-3932. PMID: 32561531.
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    12. Wallace K, Li H, Brazeal JG, Lewin DN, Sun S, Ba A, Paulos CM, Rachidi S, Li Z, Alekseyenko AV. Platelet and hemoglobin count at diagnosis are associated with survival in African American and Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2020 08; 67:101746. PMID: 32521488.
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    13. Ansa-Addo EA, Huang HC, Riesenberg B, Iamsawat S, Borucki D, Nelson MH, Nam JH, Chung D, Paulos CM, Liu B, Yu XZ, Philpott C, Howe PH, Li Z. RNA binding protein PCBP1 is an intracellular immune checkpoint for shaping T cell responses in cancer immunity. Sci Adv. 2020 May; 6(22):eaaz3865. PMID: 32523987.
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    14. Dwyer CJ, Arhontoulis DC, Rangel Rivera GO, Knochelmann HM, Smith AS, Wyatt MM, Rubinstein MP, Atkinson C, Thaxton JE, Neskey DM, Paulos CM. Ex vivo blockade of PI3K gamma or delta signaling enhances the antitumor potency of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2020 09; 50(9):1386-1399. PMID: 32383488.
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    15. Xiong Y, Neskey DM, Horton JD, Paulos CM, Knochelmann HM, Armeson KE, Young MRI. Immunological effects of nivolumab immunotherapy in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2020 Mar 17; 20(1):229. PMID: 32183719.
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    16. Ascierto PA, Bifulco C, Buonaguro L, Emens LA, Ferris RL, Fox BA, Delgoffe GM, Galon J, Gridelli C, Merlano M, Nathan P, Odunsi K, Okada H, Paulos CM, Pignata S, Schalper KA, Spranger S, Tortora G, Zarour H, Butterfield LH, Puzanov I. Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the "Immunotherapy Bridge 2018" (28-29 November, 2018, Naples, Italy). J Immunother Cancer. 2019 11 29; 7(1):332. PMID: 31783779.
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    17. Chakraborty P, Vaena SG, Thyagarajan K, Chatterjee S, Al-Khami A, Selvam SP, Nguyen H, Kang I, Wyatt MW, Baliga U, Hedley Z, Ngang RN, Guo B, Beeson GC, Husain S, Paulos CM, Beeson CC, Zilliox MJ, Hill EG, Mehrotra M, Yu XZ, Ogretmen B, Mehrotra S. Pro-Survival Lipid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Metabolically Programs T Cells to Limit Anti-tumor Activity. Cell Rep. 2019 08 13; 28(7):1879-1893.e7. PMID: 31412253.
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    18. Bowers JS, Bailey SR, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM, Camp ER. Genomics meets immunity in pancreatic cancer: Current research and future directions for pancreatic adenocarcinoma immunotherapy. Oncol Rev. 2019 Jul 22; 13(2):430. PMID: 31456872.
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    19. Horton JD, Knochelmann HM, Day TA, Paulos CM, Neskey DM. Immune Evasion by Head and Neck Cancer: Foundations for Combination Therapy. Trends Cancer. 2019 04; 5(4):208-232. PMID: 30961829.
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    20. Dwyer CJ, Knochelmann HM, Smith AS, Wyatt MM, Rangel Rivera GO, Arhontoulis DC, Bartee E, Li Z, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. Fueling Cancer Immunotherapy With Common Gamma Chain Cytokines. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:263. PMID: 30842774.
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    21. Eby JM, Smith AR, Riley TP, Cosgrove C, Ankney CM, Henning SW, Paulos CM, Garrett-Mayer E, Luiten RM, Nishimura MI, Baker BM, Le Poole IC. Molecular properties of gp100-reactive T-cell receptors drive the cytokine profile and antitumor efficacy of transgenic host T cells. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2019 01; 32(1):68-78. PMID: 30009548.
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    22. Knochelmann HM, Smith AS, Dwyer CJ, Wyatt MM, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM. CAR T Cells in Solid Tumors: Blueprints for Building Effective Therapies. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1740. PMID: 30140266.
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    23. Ascierto PA, Brugarolas J, Buonaguro L, Butterfield LH, Carbone D, Daniele B, Ferris R, Fox BA, Galon J, Gridelli C, Kaufman HL, Klebanoff CA, Melero I, Nathan P, Paulos CM, Ruella M, Sullivan R, Zarour H, Puzanov I. Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the Immunotherapy Bridge (29-30 November, 2017, Naples, Italy). J Immunother Cancer. 2018 07 11; 6(1):69. PMID: 29996914.
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    24. Hu X, Majchrzak K, Liu X, Wyatt MM, Spooner CJ, Moisan J, Zou W, Carter LL, Paulos CM. In Vitro Priming of Adoptively Transferred T Cells with a ROR? Agonist Confers Durable Memory and Stemness In Vivo. Cancer Res. 2018 07 15; 78(14):3888-3898. PMID: 29769201.
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    25. Johnson CB, May BR, Riesenberg BP, Suriano S, Mehrotra S, Garrett-Mayer E, Salem ML, Jeng EK, Wong HC, Paulos CM, Wrangle JM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. Enhanced Lymphodepletion Is Insufficient to Replace Exogenous IL2 or IL15 Therapy in Augmenting the Efficacy of Adoptively Transferred Effector CD8+ T Cells. Cancer Res. 2018 06 01; 78(11):3067-3074. PMID: 29636345.
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    26. Knochelmann HM, Dwyer CJ, Bailey SR, Amaya SM, Elston DM, Mazza-McCrann JM, Paulos CM. When worlds collide: Th17 and Treg cells in cancer and autoimmunity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2018 May; 15(5):458-469. PMID: 29563615.
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    27. Scheffel MJ, Scurti G, Wyatt MM, Garrett-Mayer E, Paulos CM, Nishimura MI, Voelkel-Johnson C. N-acetyl cysteine protects anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells from exhaustion induced by rapid expansion via the downmodulation of Foxo1 in an Akt-dependent manner. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018 Apr; 67(4):691-702. PMID: 29396710.
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    28. Wrangle JM, Patterson A, Johnson CB, Neitzke DJ, Mehrotra S, Denlinger CE, Paulos CM, Li Z, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. IL-2 and Beyond in Cancer Immunotherapy. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2018 02; 38(2):45-68. PMID: 29443657.
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    29. Riley JM, Cross AW, Paulos CM, Rubinstein MP, Wrangle J, Camp ER. The clinical implications of immunogenomics in colorectal cancer: A path for precision medicine. Cancer. 2018 04 15; 124(8):1650-1659. PMID: 29315503.
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    30. Bailey SR, Nelson MH, Majchrzak K, Bowers JS, Wyatt MM, Smith AS, Neal LR, Shirai K, Carpenito C, June CH, Zilliox MJ, Paulos CM. Human CD26high T cells elicit tumor immunity against multiple malignancies via enhanced migration and persistence. Nat Commun. 2017 12 06; 8(1):1961. PMID: 29213079.
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    31. Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Lu P, Bowers JS, Ogretmen B, Garrett-Mayer E, Paulos CM, Voelkel-Johnson C. Adoptive Transfer of Ceramide Synthase 6 Deficient Splenocytes Reduces the Development of Colitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 14; 7(1):15552. PMID: 29138469.
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    32. Chatterjee S, Daenthanasanmak A, Chakraborty P, Wyatt MW, Dhar P, Selvam SP, Fu J, Zhang J, Nguyen H, Kang I, Toth K, Al-Homrani M, Husain M, Beeson G, Ball L, Helke K, Husain S, Garrett-Mayer E, Hardiman G, Mehrotra M, Nishimura MI, Beeson CC, Bupp MG, Wu J, Ogretmen B, Paulos CM, Rathmell J, Yu XZ, Mehrotra S. CD38-NAD+Axis Regulates Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor T Cell Response. Cell Metab. 2018 01 09; 27(1):85-100.e8. PMID: 29129787.
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    33. Bowers JS, Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Aksoy BA, Wyatt MM, Smith AS, Bailey SR, Neal LR, Hammerbacher JE, Paulos CM. PI3Kd Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Fitness of Adoptively Transferred CD8+ T Cells. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1221. PMID: 29033940.
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    34. Wrangle J, Paulos CM, Smith TW, Nishimura MI, Rubinstein MP. Inducible Enhancement of T Cell Function and Anti-tumor Activity after Adoptive Transfer. Mol Ther. 2017 09 06; 25(9):1995-1996. PMID: 28830671.
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    35. Neal LR, Bailey SR, Wyatt MM, Bowers JS, Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Haupt C, Paulos CM, Varela JC. The Basics of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells in T Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies. J Immunol Res Ther. 2017; 2(1):68-79. PMID: 28825053.
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    36. Thaxton JE, Wallace C, Riesenberg B, Zhang Y, Paulos CM, Beeson CC, Liu B, Li Z. Modulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Controls CD4+ T-cell Activation and Antitumor Function. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017 08; 5(8):666-675. PMID: 28642246.
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    37. Rachidi S, Metelli A, Riesenberg B, Wu BX, Nelson MH, Wallace C, Paulos CM, Rubinstein MP, Garrett-Mayer E, Hennig M, Bearden DW, Yang Y, Liu B, Li Z. Platelets subvert T cell immunity against cancer via GARP-TGFß axis. Sci Immunol. 2017 May 05; 2(11). PMID: 28763790.
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    38. Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Bowers JS, Bailey SR, Wyatt MM, Wrangle JM, Rubinstein MP, Varela JC, Li Z, Himes RA, Chan SS, Paulos CM. ß-catenin and PI3Kd inhibition expands precursor Th17 cells with heightened stemness and antitumor activity. JCI Insight. 2017 Apr 20; 2(8). PMID: 28422756.
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    39. Malik BT, Byrne KT, Vella JL, Zhang P, Shabaneh TB, Steinberg SM, Molodtsov AK, Bowers JS, Angeles CV, Paulos CM, Huang YH, Turk MJ. Resident memory T cells in the skin mediate durable immunity to melanoma. Sci Immunol. 2017 Apr 14; 2(10). PMID: 28738020.
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    40. Mehrotra S, Britten CD, Chin S, Garrett-Mayer E, Cloud CA, Li M, Scurti G, Salem ML, Nelson MH, Thomas MB, Paulos CM, Salazar AM, Nishimura MI, Rubinstein MP, Li Z, Cole DJ. Vaccination with poly(IC:LC) and peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in patients with pancreatic cancer. J Hematol Oncol. 2017 04 07; 10(1):82. PMID: 28388966.
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    41. Zhu P, Bailey SR, Lei B, Paulos CM, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. Targeted Complement Inhibition Protects Vascularized Composite Allografts From Acute Graft Injury and Prolongs Graft Survival When Combined With Subtherapeutic Cyclosporine A Therapy. Transplantation. 2017 04; 101(4):e75-e85. PMID: 28045880.
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    42. Bowers JS, Nelson MH, Majchrzak K, Bailey SR, Rohrer B, Kaiser AD, Atkinson C, Gattinoni L, Paulos CM. Th17 cells are refractory to senescence and retain robust antitumor activity after long-term ex vivo expansion. JCI Insight. 2017 03 09; 2(5):e90772. PMID: 28289713.
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    43. Neitzke DJ, Bowers JS, Andrijauskaite K, O'Connell NS, Garrett-Mayer E, Wrangle J, Li Z, Paulos CM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. Murine Th17 cells utilize IL-2 receptor gamma chain cytokines but are resistant to cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017 Jun; 66(6):737-751. PMID: 28280853.
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    44. Hu X, Liu X, Moisan J, Wang Y, Lesch CA, Spooner C, Morgan RW, Zawidzka EM, Mertz D, Bousley D, Majchrzak K, Kryczek I, Taylor C, Van Huis C, Skalitzky D, Hurd A, Aicher TD, Toogood PL, Glick GD, Paulos CM, Zou W, Carter LL. Synthetic ROR? agonists regulate multiple pathways to enhance antitumor immunity. Oncoimmunology. 2016; 5(12):e1254854. PMID: 28123897.
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    45. Varghese B, Paulos C, Low PS. Optimization of Folate-Targeted Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Experimental Arthritis. Inflammation. 2016 Aug; 39(4):1345-53. PMID: 27206918.
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    46. Banerjee A, Thyagarajan K, Chatterjee S, Chakraborty P, Kesarwani P, Soloshchenko M, Al-Hommrani M, Andrijauskaite K, Moxley K, Janakiraman H, Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Armenson K, Palanisamy V, Rubinstein MP, Mayer EG, Cole DJ, Paulos CM, Nishimura MI, Mehrotra S. Lack of p53 Augments Antitumor Functions in Cytolytic T Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 09 15; 76(18):5229-5240. PMID: 27466285.
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    47. Nelson MH, Bowers JS, Bailey SR, Diven MA, Fugle CW, Kaiser AD, Wrzesinski C, Liu B, Restifo NP, Paulos CM. Toll-like receptor agonist therapy can profoundly augment the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells without host preconditioning. J Immunother Cancer. 2016; 4:6. PMID: 26885368.
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    48. Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Bailey SR, Bowers JS, Yu XZ, Rubinstein MP, Himes RA, Paulos CM. Exploiting IL-17-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to improve cancer immunotherapy in the clinic. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016 Mar; 65(3):247-59. PMID: 26825102.
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    49. Johnson CB, Wrangle J, Mehrotra S, Li Z, Paulos CM, Cole DJ, Surh CD, Rubinstein MP. Harnessing the IL-7/IL-7Ra axis to improve tumor immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2016 May; 5(5):e1122865. PMID: 27467935.
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    50. Su EW, Moore CJ, Suriano S, Johnson CB, Songalia N, Patterson A, Neitzke DJ, Andrijauskaite K, Garrett-Mayer E, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM, Doedens AL, Goldrath AW, Li Z, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. IL-2Ra mediates temporal regulation of IL-2 signaling and enhances immunotherapy. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Oct 28; 7(311):311ra170. PMID: 26511507.
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    51. Nelson MH, Diven MA, Huff LW, Paulos CM. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:368736. PMID: 26101781.
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    52. Bowers JS, Nelson MH, Kundimi S, Bailey SR, Huff LW, Schwartz KM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. Dendritic Cells in Irradiated Mice Trigger the Functional Plasticity and Antitumor Activity of Adoptively Transferred Tc17 Cells via IL12 Signaling. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jun 01; 21(11):2546-57. PMID: 25904754.
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    53. Rubinstein MP, Su EW, Suriano S, Cloud CA, Andrijauskaite K, Kesarwani P, Schwartz KM, Williams KM, Johnson CB, Li M, Scurti GM, Salem ML, Paulos CM, Garrett-Mayer E, Mehrotra S, Cole DJ. Interleukin-12 enhances the function and anti-tumor activity in murine and human CD8(+) T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015 May; 64(5):539-49. PMID: 25676709.
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    54. Frigault MJ, Lee J, Basil MC, Carpenito C, Motohashi S, Scholler J, Kawalekar OU, Guedan S, McGettigan SE, Posey AD, Ang S, Cooper LJ, Platt JM, Johnson FB, Paulos CM, Zhao Y, Kalos M, Milone MC, June CH. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Apr; 3(4):356-67. PMID: 25600436.
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    55. Nelson MH, Kundimi S, Bowers JS, Rogers CE, Huff LW, Schwartz KM, Thyagarajan K, Little EC, Mehrotra S, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. The inducible costimulator augments Tc17 cell responses to self and tumor tissue. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 15; 194(4):1737-47. PMID: 25576595.
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    56. Nelson MH, Paulos CM. Novel immunotherapies for hematologic malignancies. Immunol Rev. 2015 Jan; 263(1):90-105. PMID: 25510273.
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    57. Varghese B, Vlashi E, Xia W, Ayala Lopez W, Paulos CM, Reddy J, Xu LC, Low PS. Folate receptor-ß in activated macrophages: ligand binding and receptor recycling kinetics. Mol Pharm. 2014 Oct 06; 11(10):3609-16. PMID: 25166491.
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    58. Chatterjee S, Thyagarajan K, Kesarwani P, Song JH, Soloshchenko M, Fu J, Bailey SR, Vasu C, Kraft AS, Paulos CM, Yu XZ, Mehrotra S. Reducing CD73 expression by IL1ß-Programmed Th17 cells improves immunotherapeutic control of tumors. Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 01; 74(21):6048-59. PMID: 25205101.
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    59. Bailey SR, Nelson MH, Himes RA, Li Z, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM. Th17 cells in cancer: the ultimate identity crisis. Front Immunol. 2014; 5:276. PMID: 24987392.
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    60. Rubinstein MP, Cloud CA, Garrett TE, Moore CJ, Schwartz KM, Johnson CB, Craig DH, Salem ML, Paulos CM, Cole DJ. Ex vivo interleukin-12-priming during CD8(+) T cell activation dramatically improves adoptive T cell transfer antitumor efficacy in a lymphodepleted host. J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Apr; 214(4):700-7; discussion 707-8. PMID: 22360982.
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    61. Gattinoni L, Lugli E, Ji Y, Pos Z, Paulos CM, Quigley MF, Almeida JR, Gostick E, Yu Z, Carpenito C, Wang E, Douek DC, Price DA, June CH, Marincola FM, Roederer M, Restifo NP. A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties. Nat Med. 2011 Sep 18; 17(10):1290-7. PMID: 21926977.
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    62. Zhang Q, Wang H, Kantekure K, Paterson JC, Liu X, Schaffer A, Paulos C, Milone MC, Odum N, Turner S, Marafioti T, Wasik MA. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS. Blood. 2011 Sep 15; 118(11):3062-71. PMID: 21765024.
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    63. Paulos CM, Carpenito C, Plesa G, Suhoski MM, Varela-Rohena A, Golovina TN, Carroll RG, Riley JL, June CH. The inducible costimulator (ICOS) is critical for the development of human T(H)17 cells. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Oct 27; 2(55):55ra78. PMID: 20980695.
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    64. Zhao Y, Moon E, Carpenito C, Paulos CM, Liu X, Brennan AL, Chew A, Carroll RG, Scholler J, Levine BL, Albelda SM, June CH. Multiple injections of electroporated autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor mediate regression of human disseminated tumor. Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 15; 70(22):9053-61. PMID: 20926399.
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    65. Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Kaiser A, Muranski P, Palmer DC, Gattinoni L, Yu Z, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Increased intensity lymphodepletion enhances tumor treatment efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific T cells. J Immunother. 2010 Jan; 33(1):1-7. PMID: 19952961.
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    66. Paulos CM, June CH. Putting the brakes on BTLA in T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan; 120(1):76-80. PMID: 20038807.
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    67. Gattinoni L, Zhong XS, Palmer DC, Ji Y, Hinrichs CS, Yu Z, Wrzesinski C, Boni A, Cassard L, Garvin LM, Paulos CM, Muranski P, Restifo NP. Wnt signaling arrests effector T cell differentiation and generates CD8+ memory stem cells. Nat Med. 2009 Jul; 15(7):808-13. PMID: 19525962.
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    68. Hinrichs CS, Kaiser A, Paulos CM, Cassard L, Sanchez-Perez L, Heemskerk B, Wrzesinski C, Borman ZA, Muranski P, Restifo NP. Type 17 CD8+ T cells display enhanced antitumor immunity. Blood. 2009 Jul 16; 114(3):596-9. PMID: 19471017.
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    69. Boni A, Muranski P, Cassard L, Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Gattinoni L, Hinrichs CS, Chan CC, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Adoptive transfer of allogeneic tumor-specific T cells mediates effective regression of large tumors across major histocompatibility barriers. Blood. 2008 Dec 01; 112(12):4746-54. PMID: 18799724.
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    70. Palmer DC, Chan CC, Gattinoni L, Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Hinrichs CS, Powell DJ, Klebanoff CA, Finkelstein SE, Fariss RN, Yu Z, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Effective tumor treatment targeting a melanoma/melanocyte-associated antigen triggers severe ocular autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 10; 105(23):8061-6. PMID: 18523011.
      Citations:    
    71. Muranski P, Boni A, Antony PA, Cassard L, Irvine KR, Kaiser A, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Touloukian CE, Ptak K, Gattinoni L, Wrzesinski C, Hinrichs CS, Kerstann KW, Feigenbaum L, Chan CC, Restifo NP. Tumor-specific Th17-polarized cells eradicate large established melanoma. Blood. 2008 Jul 15; 112(2):362-73. PMID: 18354038.
      Citations:    
    72. Hinrichs CS, Spolski R, Paulos CM, Gattinoni L, Kerstann KW, Palmer DC, Klebanoff CA, Rosenberg SA, Leonard WJ, Restifo NP. IL-2 and IL-21 confer opposing differentiation programs to CD8+ T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Blood. 2008 Jun 01; 111(11):5326-33. PMID: 18276844.
      Citations:    
    73. Paulos CM, Suhoski MM, Plesa G, Jiang T, Basu S, Golovina TN, Jiang S, Aqui NA, Powell DJ, Levine BL, Carroll RG, Riley JL, June CH. Adoptive immunotherapy: good habits instilled at youth have long-term benefits. Immunol Res. 2008; 42(1-3):182-96. PMID: 18949448.
      Citations:    
    74. Abad JD, Wrzensinski C, Overwijk W, De Witte MA, Jorritsma A, Hsu C, Gattinoni L, Cohen CJ, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Haanen JB, Schumacher TN, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP, Morgan RA. T-cell receptor gene therapy of established tumors in a murine melanoma model. J Immunother. 2008 Jan; 31(1):1-6. PMID: 18157006.
      Citations:    
    75. Paulos CM, Kaiser A, Wrzesinski C, Hinrichs CS, Cassard L, Boni A, Muranski P, Sanchez-Perez L, Palmer DC, Yu Z, Antony PA, Gattinoni L, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Toll-like receptors in tumor immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 15; 13(18 Pt 1):5280-9. PMID: 17875756.
      Citations:    
    76. Paulos CM, Wrzesinski C, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Chieppa M, Cassard L, Palmer DC, Boni A, Muranski P, Yu Z, Gattinoni L, Antony PA, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Microbial translocation augments the function of adoptively transferred self/tumor-specific CD8+ T cells via TLR4 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug; 117(8):2197-204. PMID: 17657310.
      Citations:    
    77. Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Gattinoni L, Palmer DC, Kaiser A, Yu Z, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Hematopoietic stem cells promote the expansion and function of adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells. J Clin Invest. 2007 Feb; 117(2):492-501. PMID: 17273561.
      Citations:    
    78. Antony PA, Paulos CM, Ahmadzadeh M, Akpinarli A, Palmer DC, Sato N, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Heinrichs C, Klebanoff CA, Tagaya Y, Restifo NP. Interleukin-2-dependent mechanisms of tolerance and immunity in vivo. J Immunol. 2006 May 01; 176(9):5255-66. PMID: 16621991.
      Citations:    
    79. Paulos CM, Varghese B, Widmer WR, Breur GJ, Vlashi E, Low PS. Folate-targeted immunotherapy effectively treats established adjuvant and collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(3):R77. PMID: 16646988.
      Citations:    
    80. Paulos CM, Reddy JA, Leamon CP, Turk MJ, Low PS. Ligand binding and kinetics of folate receptor recycling in vivo: impact on receptor-mediated drug delivery. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 66(6):1406-14. PMID: 15371560.
      Citations:    
    81. Paulos CM, Turk MJ, Breur GJ, Low PS. Folate receptor-mediated targeting of therapeutic and imaging agents to activated macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2004 Apr 29; 56(8):1205-17. PMID: 15094216.
      Citations:    
    82. Turk MJ, Breur GJ, Widmer WR, Paulos CM, Xu LC, Grote LA, Low PS. Folate-targeted imaging of activated macrophages in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Jul; 46(7):1947-55. PMID: 12124880.
      Citations:    
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