Stanley Hoffman

Title
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentRheumatology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 637
904J
Clinical Science Bldg. - 96 Jonathan Lucas St.
Phone843-792-9640
Fax843-792-7121
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    Dr. Stanley Hoffman is a Professor in the Division of Rheumatology & Immunology and in the Department of Cell Biology at the Medical University of South Carolina. He received a B.Sc. in Life Sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1972 and a Ph.D. in Cell Biology from the California Institute of Technology in 1978. He then worked with Nobel Laureate Gerald M. Edelman at the Rockefeller University as a Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Associate, and Assistant Professor. He joined the Division of Rheumatology and Immunology as an Associate Professor in 1990 and was promoted to Professor in 1998.

    Dr. Hoffman has been involved in the study of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion since the study of the role of specific molecules in these processes was initiated in the 1970s. He has done pioneering work on several of these molecules including NCAM, tenascin-C, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, and periostin. The function of the ECM is critical in regulating diverse cellular processes including cell division, cell migration, differentiation, and cell death. These are the primary processes of tissue morphogenesis. When properly coordinated these processes lead to favorable outcomes such as embryonic development and the repair of damaged tissues in adult organisms. On the other hand, these processes are not properly coordinated in birth defects and in fibrotic diseases (e.g. scleroderma) in which overexpression of ECM proteins occurs.

    Dr. Hoffman’s current interests focus on the identification of cells that overexpress ECM proteins in fibrotic diseases and the molecular mechanisms that regulate ECM protein overexpression. The classical viewpoint was that the cells that overexpress ECM proteins were resident cells in the affected tissue. However, recent studies suggest that a major portion of these cells are bone marrow-derived cells that differentiate into collagen-producing cells while migrating into affected tissues. A variety of studies from our lab suggest that the differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into collagen-producing cells, their production of collagen, and their migration into tissues are all promoted by decreased expression of the master signaling molecule caveolin-1. Therefore, caveolin-1 is an outstanding target for novel treatments for fibrotic diseases which is of the utmost importance to patients because there are currently no FDA-approved treatments for these devastating diseases. Work in this area has led Dr. Hoffman and his close colleague Dr. Tourkina to patent a drug that targets caveolin-1 deficiency and to form a faculty spin-off company to participate in the development of this drug.

    Work in the Hoffman laboratory has been supported by grants from the Scleroderma Foundation; NIH Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; NIH National Center for Research Resources; NIH Institute of Aging; NIH National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; American Heart Association; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; NASA; RGK Foundation; and Showa Denko K K Pharmaceutical.
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    Cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion, Translational Research on Fibrotic Diseases

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Kuppuswamy D, Chinnakkannu P, Reese C, Hoffman S. The Caveolin-1 Scaffolding Domain Peptide Reverses Aging-Associated Deleterious Changes in Multiple Organs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2021 Apr 20. PMID: 33879542.
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    2. Chinnakkannu P, Reese C, Gaspar JA, Panneerselvam S, Pleasant-Jenkins D, Mukherjee R, Baicu C, Tourkina E, Hoffman S, Kuppuswamy D. Suppression of angiotensin II-induced pathological changes in heart and kidney by the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide. PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0207844. PMID: 30576317.
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    3. Su Y, Nishimoto T, Hoffman S, Nguyen XX, Pilewski JM, Feghali-Bostwick C. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 exerts antifibrotic activity by reducing levels of connective tissue growth factor and the C-X-C chemokine receptor 4. FASEB Bioadv. 2019 Mar; 1(3):167-179. PMID: 31482149.
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    4. Watanabe T, Nishimoto T, Mlakar L, Heywood J, Malaab M, Hoffman S, Feghali-Bostwick C. Optimization of a murine and human tissue model to recapitulate dermal and pulmonary features of systemic sclerosis. PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0179917. PMID: 28651005.
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    5. Lee R, Reese C, Carmen-Lopez G, Perry B, Bonner M, Zemskova M, Wilson CL, Helke KL, Silver RM, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Deficient Adipogenesis of Scleroderma Patient and Healthy African American Monocytes. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8:174. PMID: 28420992.
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    6. Pleasant-Jenkins D, Reese C, Chinnakkannu P, Kasiganesan H, Tourkina E, Hoffman S, Kuppuswamy D. Reversal of maladaptive fibrosis and compromised ventricular function in the pressure overloaded heart by a caveolin-1 surrogate peptide. Lab Invest. 2017 04; 97(4):370-382. PMID: 28112757.
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    7. Jones JT, Qian X, van der Velden JL, Chia SB, McMillan DH, Flemer S, Hoffman SM, Lahue KG, Schneider RW, Nolin JD, Anathy V, van der Vliet A, Townsend DM, Tew KD, Janssen-Heininger YM. Glutathione S-transferase pi modulates NF-?B activation and pro-inflammatory responses in lung epithelial cells. Redox Biol. 2016 08; 8:375-82. PMID: 27058114.
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    8. Lee R, Reese C, Perry B, Heywood J, Bonner M, Zemskova M, Silver RM, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Enhanced chemokine-receptor expression, function, and signaling in healthy African American and scleroderma-patient monocytes are regulated by caveolin-1. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair. 2015; 8:11. PMID: 26322128.
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    9. Reese C, Perry B, Heywood J, Bonner M, Visconti RP, Lee R, Hatfield CM, Silver RM, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Caveolin-1 deficiency may predispose African Americans to systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Jul; 66(7):1909-19. PMID: 24578173.
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    10. Reese C, Lee R, Bonner M, Perry B, Heywood J, Silver RM, Tourkina E, Visconti RP, Hoffman S. Fibrocytes in the fibrotic lung: altered phenotype detected by flow cytometry. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 5:141. PMID: 24999331.
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    11. Lee R, Perry B, Heywood J, Reese C, Bonner M, Hatfield CM, Silver RM, Visconti RP, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Caveolin-1 regulates chemokine receptor 5-mediated contribution of bone marrow-derived cells to dermal fibrosis. Front Pharmacol. 2014; 5:140. PMID: 24966836.
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    12. Lee R, Reese C, Bonner M, Tourkina E, Hajdu Z, Riemer EC, Silver RM, Visconti RP, Hoffman S. Bleomycin delivery by osmotic minipump: similarity to human scleroderma interstitial lung disease. . 2014 Apr 15; 306(8):L736-48. PMID: 24583879.
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    13. Ghatak S, Misra S, Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Hoffman S, Levine RA, Hascall VC, Markwald RR. Periostin induces intracellular cross-talk between kinases and hyaluronan in atrioventricular valvulogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 21; 289(12):8545-61. PMID: 24469446.
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    14. Ghatak S, Bogatkevich GS, Atnelishvili I, Akter T, Feghali-Bostwick C, Hoffman S, Fresco VM, Fuchs JC, Visconti RP, Markwald RR, Padhye SB, Silver RM, Hascall VC, Misra S. Overexpression of c-Met and CD44v6 receptors contributes to autocrine TGF-ß1 signaling in interstitial lung disease. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 14; 289(11):7856-72. PMID: 24324260.
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    15. Inai K, Burnside JL, Hoffman S, Toole BP, Sugi Y. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77593. PMID: 24147033.
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    16. Reese C, Dyer S, Perry B, Bonner M, Oates J, Hofbauer A, Sessa W, Bernatchez P, Visconti RP, Zhang J, Hatfield CM, Silver RM, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Differential regulation of cell functions by CSD peptide subdomains. Respir Res. 2013 Sep 08; 14:90. PMID: 24011378.
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    17. Silver RM, Bogatkevich G, Tourkina E, Nietert PJ, Hoffman S. Racial differences between blacks and whites with systemic sclerosis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012 Nov; 24(6):642-8. PMID: 22955018.
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    18. Bains SN, Tourkina E, Atkinson C, Joseph K, Tholanikunnel B, Chu HW, Riemer EC, Martin R, Hoffman S. Loss of caveolin-1 from bronchial epithelial cells and monocytes in human subjects with asthma. Allergy. 2012 Dec; 67(12):1601-4. PMID: 23004679.
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    19. Tourkina E, Hoffman S. Caveolin-1 signaling in lung fibrosis. Open Rheumatol J. 2012; 6:116-22. PMID: 22802909.
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    20. Buchser WJ, Smith RP, Pardinas JR, Haddox CL, Hutson T, Moon L, Hoffman SR, Bixby JL, Lemmon VP. Peripheral nervous system genes expressed in central neurons induce growth on inhibitory substrates. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e38101. PMID: 22701605.
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    21. Beckham TH, Lu P, Cheng JC, Zhao D, Turner LS, Zhang X, Hoffman S, Armeson KE, Liu A, Marrison T, Hannun YA, Liu X. Acid ceramidase-mediated production of sphingosine 1-phosphate promotes prostate cancer invasion through upregulation of cathepsin B. Int J Cancer. 2012 Nov 01; 131(9):2034-43. PMID: 22322590.
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    22. Tourkina E, Bonner M, Oates J, Hofbauer A, Richard M, Znoyko S, Visconti RP, Zhang J, Hatfield CM, Silver RM, Hoffman S. Altered monocyte and fibrocyte phenotype and function in scleroderma interstitial lung disease: reversal by caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair. 2011 Jul 01; 4(1):15. PMID: 21722364.
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    23. Teekakirikul P, Eminaga S, Toka O, Alcalai R, Wang L, Wakimoto H, Nayor M, Konno T, Gorham JM, Wolf CM, Kim JB, Schmitt JP, Molkentin JD, Norris RA, Tager AM, Hoffman SR, Markwald RR, Seidman CE, Seidman JG. Cardiac fibrosis in mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is mediated by non-myocyte proliferation and requires Tgf-ß. J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct; 120(10):3520-9. PMID: 20811150.
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    24. Beckham TH, Elojeimy S, Cheng JC, Turner LS, Hoffman SR, Norris JS, Liu X. Targeting sphingolipid metabolism in head and neck cancer: rational therapeutic potentials. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2010 May; 14(5):529-39. PMID: 20334489.
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    25. Tourkina E, Richard M, Oates J, Hofbauer A, Bonner M, Gööz P, Visconti R, Zhang J, Znoyko S, Hatfield CM, Silver RM, Hoffman S. Caveolin-1 regulates leucocyte behaviour in fibrotic lung disease. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jun; 69(6):1220-6. PMID: 20410070.
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    26. Usher LC, Johnstone A, Ertürk A, Hu Y, Strikis D, Wanner IB, Moorman S, Lee JW, Min J, Ha HH, Duan Y, Hoffman S, Goldberg JL, Bradke F, Chang YT, Lemmon VP, Bixby JL. A chemical screen identifies novel compounds that overcome glial-mediated inhibition of neuronal regeneration. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 31; 30(13):4693-706. PMID: 20357120.
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    27. Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Hoffman S, Markwald RR. The many facets of the matricelluar protein periostin during cardiac development, remodeling, and pathophysiology. J Cell Commun Signal. 2009 Dec; 3(3-4):275-86. PMID: 19798597.
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    28. Norris RA, Potts JD, Yost MJ, Junor L, Brooks T, Tan H, Hoffman S, Hart MM, Kern MJ, Damon B, Markwald RR, Goodwin RL. Periostin promotes a fibroblastic lineage pathway in atrioventricular valve progenitor cells. Dev Dyn. 2009 May; 238(5):1052-63. PMID: 19334280.
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    29. Göoz P, Göoz M, Baldys A, Hoffman S. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 27; 380(1):33-8. PMID: 19150341.
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    30. Tourkina E, Richard M, Gööz P, Bonner M, Pannu J, Harley R, Bernatchez PN, Sessa WC, Silver RM, Hoffman S. Antifibrotic properties of caveolin-1 scaffolding domain in vitro and in vivo. . 2008 May; 294(5):L843-61. PMID: 18203815.
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    31. Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Sugi Y, Hoffman S, Amos J, Hart MM, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Markwald RR. Periostin regulates atrioventricular valve maturation. Dev Biol. 2008 Apr 15; 316(2):200-13. PMID: 18313657.
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    32. Shepard JB, Gliga DA, Morrow AP, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. Versican knock-down compromises chondrogenesis in the embryonic chick limb. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008 Jan; 291(1):19-27. PMID: 18085607.
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    33. Inai K, Norris RA, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Sugi Y. BMP-2 induces cell migration and periostin expression during atrioventricular valvulogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008 Mar 15; 315(2):383-96. PMID: 18261719.
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    34. Shepard JB, Krug HA, LaFoon BA, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. Versican expression during synovial joint morphogenesis. Int J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 07; 3(6):380-4. PMID: 17848983.
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    35. Wirrig EE, Snarr BS, Chintalapudi MR, O'neal JL, Phelps AL, Barth JL, Fresco VM, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Toole BP, Hoffman S, Trusk TC, Argraves WS, Wessels A. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development. Dev Biol. 2007 Oct 15; 310(2):291-303. PMID: 17822691.
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    36. Norris RA, Damon B, Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Ramamurthi A, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Trusk T, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Davis J, Hoffman S, Wen X, Sugi Y, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Turner DK, Oka T, Conway SJ, Molkentin JD, Forgacs G, Markwald RR. Periostin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis and the biomechanical properties of connective tissues. J Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun 01; 101(3):695-711. PMID: 17226767.
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    37. Kern CB, Norris RA, Thompson RP, Argraves WS, Fairey SE, Reyes L, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Versican proteolysis mediates myocardial regression during outflow tract development. Dev Dyn. 2007 Mar; 236(3):671-83. PMID: 17226818.
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    38. Butcher JT, Norris RA, Hoffman S, Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Periostin promotes atrioventricular mesenchyme matrix invasion and remodeling mediated by integrin signaling through Rho/PI 3-kinase. Dev Biol. 2007 Feb 01; 302(1):256-66. PMID: 17070513.
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    39. Mishima N, Hoffman S, Hill EG, Krug EL. Chick embryos exposed to trichloroethylene in an ex ovo culture model show selective defects in early endocardial cushion tissue formation. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2006 Jul; 76(7):517-27. PMID: 16933305.
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    40. Moralez I, Phelps A, Riley B, Raines M, Wirrig E, Snarr B, Jin JP, Van Den Hoff M, Hoffman S, Wessels A. Muscularizing tissues in the endocardial cushions of the avian heart are characterized by the expression of h1-calponin. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jun; 235(6):1648-58. PMID: 16502418.
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    41. Bekker MN, Arkesteijn JB, van den Akker NM, Hoffman S, Webb S, van Vugt JM, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Increased NCAM expression and vascular development in trisomy 16 mouse embryos: relationship with nuchal translucency. Pediatr Res. 2005 Dec; 58(6):1222-7. PMID: 16306197.
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    42. Todd Richmond A, Atwood J, Bream J, Mjaatvedt CH, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. Neural tissue co-culture with mesenchyme to investigate patterningof peripheral nerve during murine embryonic limb development. Cytotechnology. 2004 Oct; 46(2-3):173-82. PMID: 19003271.
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    43. Williams DR, Presar AR, Richmond AT, Mjaatvedt CH, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. Limb chondrogenesis is compromised in the versican deficient hdf mouse. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Sep 02; 334(3):960-6. PMID: 16039617.
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    44. Peterson RE, Hoffman S, Kern MJ. Opposing roles of two isoforms of the Prx1 homeobox gene in chondrogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2005 Jul; 233(3):811-21. PMID: 15895367.
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    45. Kern CB, Hoffman S, Moreno R, Damon BJ, Norris RA, Krug EL, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Immunolocalization of chick periostin protein in the developing heart. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 May; 284(1):415-23. PMID: 15803479.
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    46. Tourkina E, Gooz P, Pannu J, Bonner M, Scholz D, Hacker S, Silver RM, Trojanowska M, Hoffman S. Opposing effects of protein kinase Calpha and protein kinase Cepsilon on collagen expression by human lung fibroblasts are mediated via MEK/ERK and caveolin-1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005 Apr 08; 280(14):13879-87. PMID: 15691837.
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    47. Snow HE, Riccio LM, Mjaatvedt CH, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. Versican expression during skeletal/joint morphogenesis and patterning of muscle and nerve in the embryonic mouse limb. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Feb; 282(2):95-105. PMID: 15633171.
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    48. May LA, Tourkina E, Hoffman SR, Dix TA. Detection and quantitation of curcumin in mouse lung cell cultures by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2005 Feb 01; 337(1):62-9. PMID: 15649376.
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    49. Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Wang J, Maeda M, Rogers R, Krug E, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Conway SJ. Periostin is expressed within the developing teeth at the sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Dyn. 2004 Apr; 229(4):857-68. PMID: 15042709.
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    50. Tourkina E, Gooz P, Oates JC, Ludwicka-Bradley A, Silver RM, Hoffman S. Curcumin-induced apoptosis in scleroderma lung fibroblasts: role of protein kinase cepsilon. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004 Jul; 31(1):28-35. PMID: 14742295.
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    51. Mishima N, Hoffman S. Neurocan in the embryonic avian heart and vasculature. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003 Jun; 272(2):556-62. PMID: 12740950.
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    52. Gillotte DM, Fox PL, Mjaatvedt CH, Hoffman S, Capehart AA. An in vitro method for analysis of chondrogenesis in limb mesenchyme from individual transgenic (hdf) embryos. Methods Cell Sci. 2003; 25(3-4):97-104. PMID: 15801154.
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    53. Loike JD, Cao L, Budhu S, Hoffman S, Silverstein SC. Blockade of alpha 5 beta 1 integrins reverses the inhibitory effect of tenascin on chemotaxis of human monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes through three-dimensional gels of extracellular matrix proteins. J Immunol. 2001 Jun 15; 166(12):7534-42. PMID: 11390508.
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    54. Tourkina E, Hoffman S, Fenton JW, Lipsitz S, Silver RM, Ludwicka-Bradley A. Depletion of protein kinase Cepsilon in normal and scleroderma lung fibroblasts has opposite effects on tenascin expression. Arthritis Rheum. 2001 Jun; 44(6):1370-81. PMID: 11407697.
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    55. Li H, Leung TC, Hoffman S, Balsamo J, Lilien J. Coordinate regulation of cadherin and integrin function by the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan neurocan. J Cell Biol. 2000 Jun 12; 149(6):1275-88. PMID: 10851024.
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    56. Ludwicka-Bradley A, Tourkina E, Suzuki S, Tyson E, Bonner M, Fenton JW, Hoffman S, Silver RM. Thrombin upregulates interleukin-8 in lung fibroblasts via cleavage of proteolytically activated receptor-I and protein kinase C-gamma activation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000 Feb; 22(2):235-43. PMID: 10657945.
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    57. Zanin MK, Bundy J, Ernst H, Wessels A, Conway SJ, Hoffman S. Distinct spatial and temporal distributions of aggrecan and versican in the embryonic chick heart. Anat Rec. 1999 12 01; 256(4):366-80. PMID: 10589023.
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    58. Loike JD, Cao L, Budhu S, Marcantonio EE, El Khoury J, Hoffman S, Yednock TA, Silverstein SC. Differential regulation of beta1 integrins by chemoattractants regulates neutrophil migration through fibrin. J Cell Biol. 1999 Mar 08; 144(5):1047-56. PMID: 10085300.
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    59. Capehart AA, Mjaatvedt CH, Hoffman S, Krug EL. Dynamic expression of a native chondroitin sulfate epitope reveals microheterogeneity of extracellular matrix organization in the embryonic chick heart. Anat Rec. 1999 02 01; 254(2):181-95. PMID: 9972803.
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    60. Bundy J, Rogers R, Hoffman S, Conway SJ. Segmental expression of aggrecan in the non-segmented perinotochordal sheath underlies normal segmentation of the vertebral column. Mech Dev. 1998 Dec; 79(1-2):213-7. PMID: 10349634.
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    61. Lilien J, Balsamo J, Hoffman S, Eisenberg C. beta-Catenin is a target for extracellular signals controlling cadherin function: the neurocan-GalNAcPTase connection. Curr Top Dev Biol. 1997; 35:161-89. PMID: 9292270.
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    62. Makhluf HA, Stepniakowska J, Hoffman S, Smith E, LeRoy EC, Trojanowska M. IL-4 upregulates tenascin synthesis in scleroderma and healthy skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol. 1996 Dec; 107(6):856-9. PMID: 8941674.
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    63. Balsamo J, Leung T, Ernst H, Zanin MK, Hoffman S, Lilien J. Regulated binding of PTP1B-like phosphatase to N-cadherin: control of cadherin-mediated adhesion by dephosphorylation of beta-catenin. J Cell Biol. 1996 Aug; 134(3):801-13. PMID: 8707857.
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    64. Tourkin A, Bonner M, Mantrova E, LeRoy EC, Hoffman S. Dot-like focal contacts in adherent eosinophils, their redistribution into peripheral belts, and correlated effects on cell migration and protected zone formation. J Cell Sci. 1996 Aug; 109 ( Pt 8):2169-77. PMID: 8856513.
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    65. Ernst H, Zanin MK, Everman D, Hoffman S. Receptor-mediated adhesive and anti-adhesive functions of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan preparations from embryonic chicken brain. J Cell Sci. 1995 Dec; 108 ( Pt 12):3807-16. PMID: 8719887.
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    66. Balsamo J, Ernst H, Zanin MK, Hoffman S, Lilien J. The interaction of the retina cell surface N-acetylgalactosaminylphosphotransferase with an endogenous proteoglycan ligand results in inhibition of cadherin-mediated adhesion. J Cell Biol. 1995 Jun; 129(5):1391-401. PMID: 7775582.
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    67. Byeon MK, Sugi Y, Markwald RR, Hoffman S. NCAM polypeptides in heart development: association with Z discs of forms that contain the muscle-specific domain. J Cell Biol. 1995 Jan; 128(1-2):209-21. PMID: 7822416.
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    68. Allred CA, Hoffman SE, Fox DH, Michel Y. A measure of perceived environmental uncertainty in hospitals. West J Nurs Res. 1994 Apr; 16(2):169-82. PMID: 8203137.
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    69. Hoffman S, Dutton SL, Ernst H, Boackle MK, Everman D, Tourkin A, Loike JD. Functional characterization of antiadhesion molecules. Perspect Dev Neurobiol. 1994; 2(1):101-10. PMID: 7530136.
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    70. Tourkin A, Anderson T, LeRoy EC, Hoffman S. Eosinophil adhesion and maturation is modulated by laminin. Cell Adhes Commun. 1993 Sep; 1(2):161-76. PMID: 8081878.
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    71. Rettig WJ, Hoffman S, Su SL, Garin-Chesa P. Species diversity of neuronectin and cytotactin expression patterns in the vertebrate central nervous system. Brain Res. 1992 Sep 11; 590(1-2):219-28. PMID: 1384932.
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    72. Crossin KL, Hoffman S. Expression of adhesion molecules during the formation and differentiation of the avian endocardial cushion tissue. Dev Biol. 1991 Jun; 145(2):277-86. PMID: 1710192.
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    73. Crossin KL, Prieto AL, Hoffman S, Jones FS, Friedlander DR. Expression of adhesion molecules and the establishment of boundaries during embryonic and neural development. Exp Neurol. 1990 Jul; 109(1):6-18. PMID: 2192909.
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    74. Hoffman S, Crossin KL, Prediger EA, Cunningham BA, Edelman GM. Expression and function of cell adhesion molecules during the early development of the heart. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 588:73-86. PMID: 1694067.
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    75. Hoffman S, Crossin KL, Jones FS, Friedlander DR, Edelman GM. Cytotactin and cytotactin-binding proteoglycan. An interactive pair of extracellular matrix proteins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 580:288-301. PMID: 1692457.
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    76. Crossin KL, Hoffman S, Tan SS, Edelman GM. Cytotactin and its proteoglycan ligand mark structural and functional boundaries in somatosensory cortex of the early postnatal mouse. Dev Biol. 1989 Dec; 136(2):381-92. PMID: 2479585.
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    77. Jones FS, Hoffman S, Cunningham BA, Edelman GM. A detailed structural model of cytotactin: protein homologies, alternative RNA splicing, and binding regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar; 86(6):1905-9. PMID: 2467292.
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    78. Becker JW, Erickson HP, Hoffman S, Cunningham BA, Edelman GM. Topology of cell adhesion molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Feb; 86(3):1088-92. PMID: 2915974.
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    79. Prediger EA, Hoffman S, Edelman GM, Cunningham BA. Four exons encode a 93-base-pair insert in three neural cell adhesion molecule mRNAs specific for chicken heart and skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec; 85(24):9616-20. PMID: 3200847.
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    80. Friedlander DR, Hoffman S, Edelman GM. Functional mapping of cytotactin: proteolytic fragments active in cell-substrate adhesion. J Cell Biol. 1988 Dec; 107(6 Pt 1):2329-40. PMID: 2461950.
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    81. Jones FS, Burgoon MP, Hoffman S, Crossin KL, Cunningham BA, Edelman GM. A cDNA clone for cytotactin contains sequences similar to epidermal growth factor-like repeats and segments of fibronectin and fibrinogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(7):2186-90. PMID: 2451243.
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    82. Hoffman S, Crossin KL, Edelman GM. Molecular forms, binding functions, and developmental expression patterns of cytotactin and cytotactin-binding proteoglycan, an interactive pair of extracellular matrix molecules. J Cell Biol. 1988 Feb; 106(2):519-32. PMID: 2448317.
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    83. Tan SS, Crossin KL, Hoffman S, Edelman GM. Asymmetric expression in somites of cytotactin and its proteoglycan ligand is correlated with neural crest cell distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Nov; 84(22):7977-81. PMID: 2446315.
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    84. Hoffman SE, Ma PC. Home care for the mentally ill in Taiwan: a public health model. Int Nurs Rev. 1987 Nov-Dec; 34(6):161-3. PMID: 2826359.
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    85. Hoffman S, Edelman GM. A proteoglycan with HNK-1 antigenic determinants is a neuron-associated ligand for cytotactin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr; 84(8):2523-7. PMID: 2436234.
      Citations:    
    86. Murray BA, Hoffman S, Cunningham BA. Molecular features of cell-cell adhesion molecules. Prog Brain Res. 1987; 71:35-45. PMID: 3588954.
      Citations:    
    87. Hoffman S, Friedlander DR, Chuong CM, Grumet M, Edelman GM. Differential contributions of Ng-CAM and N-CAM to cell adhesion in different neural regions. J Cell Biol. 1986 Jul; 103(1):145-58. PMID: 3522601.
      Citations:    
    88. Crossin KL, Hoffman S, Grumet M, Thiery JP, Edelman GM. Site-restricted expression of cytotactin during development of the chicken embryo. J Cell Biol. 1986 May; 102(5):1917-30. PMID: 2422181.
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    89. Grumet M, Hoffman S, Crossin KL, Edelman GM. Cytotactin, an extracellular matrix protein of neural and non-neural tissues that mediates glia-neuron interaction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec; 82(23):8075-9. PMID: 2415980.
      Citations:    
    90. Grumet M, Hoffman S, Chuong CM, Edelman GM. Polypeptide components and binding functions of neuron-glia cell adhesion molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Dec; 81(24):7989-93. PMID: 6393132.
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    91. Hoffman S, Chuong CM, Edelman GM. Evolutionary conservation of key structures and binding functions of neural cell adhesion molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Nov; 81(21):6881-5. PMID: 6208560.
      Citations:    
    92. Sorkin BC, Hoffman S, Edelman GM, Cunningham BA. Sulfation and phosphorylation of the neural cell adhesion molecule, N-CAM. Science. 1984 Sep 28; 225(4669):1476-8. PMID: 6474186.
      Citations:    
    93. Grumet M, Hoffman S, Edelman GM. Two antigenically related neuronal cell adhesion molecules of different specificities mediate neuron-neuron and neuron-glia adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jan; 81(1):267-71. PMID: 6364137.
      Citations:    
    94. Hoffman S, Edelman GM. The mechanism of binding of neural cell adhesion molecules. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1984; 181:147-60. PMID: 6532156.
      Citations:    
    95. Hoffman S, Edelman GM. Kinetics of homophilic binding by embryonic and adult forms of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Sep; 80(18):5762-6. PMID: 6577452.
      Citations:    
    96. Cunningham BA, Hoffman S, Rutishauser U, Hemperly JJ, Edelman GM. Molecular topography of the neural cell adhesion molecule N-CAM: surface orientation and location of sialic acid-rich and binding regions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 May; 80(10):3116-20. PMID: 6344077.
      Citations:    
    97. Edelman GM, Hoffman S, Chuong CM, Thiery JP, Brackenbury R, Gallin WJ, Grumet M, Greenberg ME, Hemperly JJ, Cohen C, et al. Structure and modulation of neural cell adhesion molecules in early and late embryogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983; 48 Pt 2:515-26. PMID: 6586372.
      Citations:    
    98. Hoffman S, Sorkin BC, White PC, Brackenbury R, Mailhammer R, Rutishauser U, Cunningham BA, Edelman GM. Chemical characterization of a neural cell adhesion molecule purified from embryonic brain membranes. J Biol Chem. 1982 Jul 10; 257(13):7720-9. PMID: 7085646.
      Citations:    
    99. Rutishauser U, Hoffman S, Edelman GM. Binding properties of a cell adhesion molecule from neural tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jan; 79(2):685-9. PMID: 6952220.
      Citations:    
    100. Hoffman S, McMahon D. The effects of inhibition of development in Dictyostelium discoideum on changes in plasma membrane composition and topography. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1978 Apr 15; 187(1):12-24. PMID: 566085.
      Citations:    
    101. Hoffman S, McMahon D. Defective glycoproteins in the plasma membrane of an aggregation minus mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum uith abnormal cellular interactions. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jan 10; 253(1):278-87. PMID: 563397.
      Citations:    
    102. Hoffman S, McMahon D. The role of the plasma membrane in the development of Dictyostelium discoideum. II. Developmental and topographic analysis of polypeptide and glycoprotein composition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977 Mar 01; 465(2):242-59. PMID: 16250338.
      Citations:    
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