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Stephen Alexander Duncan

TitleChair, Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentRegenerative Medicine and Cell Biology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 508
BSB 657A
Basic Science Building - 173 Ashley Ave.
Phone843-792-9104
Fax843-792-0664
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Research in the Duncan laboratory focuses on liver development and disease using mice and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as model systems.

    1) Molecular mechanisms underlying liver development

    Development of a simple two-cell embryo to a complex multicellular organism is a highly dynamic procedure requiring orchestrated cell movements and multiple interactions between cells and their surroundings. As cells differentiate, not only do they receive extra-cellular signals they secrete and display signals of their own, thereby defining the makeup of their local environments. The result of these intercellular communications is the controlled differentiation of populations of progenitor cells to produce novel cell types. The repertoire of genes expressed by the cell defines the phenotype. Gene transcription therefore plays a critical role in regulating cell fate. To comprehend the molecular mechanisms controlling embryonic development my laboratory is, therefore, attempting to understand how transcription factors interact with extracellular signaling mechanisms to drive cell differentiation.

    Most organs are a complex array of different cell types and tissues, all of which dynamically interact to regulate organogenesis. Tissue complexity can make it challenging to measure the contribution of a specific transcription factor to overall organ or tissue development. However, the liver, in which 80% of the cells are hepatocytes, offers an attractive and relatively simple system in which to study the role of transcription factors during morphogenesis and development. In the laboratory, we use transgenic and knockout mice and genetically modified iPSCs to uncover the mechanisms through which transcription factors and cell signaling molecules are required to drive liver development.

    2) Using pluripotent stem cells to study inborn errors of hepatic metabolism

    The liver has vital endocrine and exocrine functions that regulate a diverse array of metabolic activities. Although specific forms of inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are relatively rare, cumulatively they are common and without treatment are often fatal. To date, a liver transplant can treat the most severe hepatic metabolic deficiencies. Unfortunately, the number of available donor livers is limited, and demand for transplant-quality livers continues to increase. With donor livers being scarce, it has been proposed that cell transplant therapy may offer an alternative to an organ transplant. One source of hepatocytes for transplant could be human iPSCs. Several projects in the laboratory, therefore, focus on generating functional hepatocytes from iPSCs.

    Metabolic liver disease can also often be treated using small molecules or biologics that, in general, have an established track record of success. With this in mind, we are developing a platform that will facilitate the efficient identification of treatments for rare inborn errors of hepatic metabolism. We propose to 1) establish human pluripotent stem cells harboring genetic variants associated with disease in patients, 2) differentiate the stem cells to hepatocytes and examine whether genetic variations recapitulate the disease in culture, 3) establish assays that are compatible with moderate to high throughput screening to identify existing drugs that could be repurposed to correct the pathophysiology of the disease, and 4) establish the efficacy and safety of lead drugs using humanized animal models and human trials.

    Collapse keywords
    liver, development, stem cells, iPSC, transcription, embryogenesis, metabolic disease, liver disease, hepatogenesis, HNF4A, FGF, FGFR, BMP, hepatocyte differentiation, transgenics, knockout mice, Crispr-cas9

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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Liu Y, Conlon DM, Bi X, Slovik KJ, Shi J, Edelstein HI, Millar JS, Javaheri A, Cuchel M, Pashos EE, Iqbal J, Hussain MM, Hegele RA, Yang W, Duncan SA, Rader DJ, Morrisey EE. Lack of MTTP Activity in Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes and Cardiomyocytes Abolishes apoB Secretion and Increases Cell Stress. Cell Rep. 2017 05 16; 19(7):1456-1466. PMID: 28514664.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Pashos EE, Park Y, Wang X, Raghavan A, Yang W, Abbey D, Peters DT, Arbelaez J, Hernandez M, Kuperwasser N, Li W, Lian Z, Liu Y, Lv W, Lytle-Gabbin SL, Marchadier DH, Rogov P, Shi J, Slovik KJ, Stylianou IM, Wang L, Yan R, Zhang X, Kathiresan S, Duncan SA, Mikkelsen TS, Morrisey EE, Rader DJ, Brown CD, Musunuru K. Large, Diverse Population Cohorts of hiPSCs and Derived Hepatocyte-like Cells Reveal Functional Genetic Variation at Blood Lipid-Associated Loci. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 04 06; 20(4):558-570.e10. PMID: 28388432.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Cayo MA, Mallanna SK, Di Furio F, Jing R, Tolliver LB, Bures M, Urick A, Noto FK, Pashos EE, Greseth MD, Czarnecki M, Traktman P, Yang W, Morrisey EE, Grompe M, Rader DJ, Duncan SA. A Drug Screen using Human iPSC-Derived Hepatocyte-like Cells Reveals Cardiac Glycosides as a Potential Treatment for Hypercholesterolemia. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 04 06; 20(4):478-489.e5. PMID: 28388428.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Jing R, Duncan CB, Duncan SA. A small-molecule screen reveals that HSP90ß promotes the conversion of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endoderm to a hepatic fate and regulates HNF4A turnover. Development. 2017 05 15; 144(10):1764-1774. PMID: 28360131.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Bi X, Pashos EE, Cuchel M, Lyssenko NN, Hernandez M, Picataggi A, McParland J, Yang W, Liu Y, Yan R, Yu C, DerOhannessian SL, Phillips MC, Morrisey EE, Duncan SA, Rader DJ. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Deficiency in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Abrogates HDL Biogenesis and Enhances Triglyceride Secretion. EBioMedicine. 2017 Apr; 18:139-145. PMID: 28330813.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Mallanna SK, Waas M, Duncan SA, Gundry RL. N-glycoprotein surfaceome of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatic endoderm. Proteomics. 2017 Mar; 17(5). PMID: 27966262.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Mallanna SK, Cayo MA, Twaroski K, Gundry RL, Duncan SA. Mapping the Cell-Surface N-Glycoproteome of Human Hepatocytes Reveals Markers for Selecting a Homogeneous Population of iPSC-Derived Hepatocytes. Stem Cell Reports. 2016 09 13; 7(3):543-556. PMID: 27569060.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Duncan SA. Liver Capsule: Multipotent stem cells and their lineage restriction to hepatocytes. Hepatology. 2016 10; 64(4):1330. PMID: 27405444.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Twaroski K, Mallanna SK, Jing R, DiFurio F, Urick A, Duncan SA. FGF2 mediates hepatic progenitor cell formation during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation by inducing the WNT antagonist NKD1. Genes Dev. 2015 Dec 01; 29(23):2463-74. PMID: 26637527; PMCID: PMC4691950.
    10. Nagaoka M, Kobayashi M, Kawai C, Mallanna SK, Duncan SA. Design of a Vitronectin-Based Recombinant Protein as a Defined Substrate for Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-Like Cells. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0136350. PMID: 26308339; PMCID: PMC4550348.
    11. Yang W, Liu Y, Slovik KJ, Wu JC, Duncan SA, Rader DJ, Morrisey EE. Generation of iPSCs as a Pooled Culture Using Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting of Newly Reprogrammed Cells. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134995. PMID: 26281015; PMCID: PMC4539221.
    12. Milanovich S, Peterson J, Allred J, Stelloh C, Rajasekaran K, Fisher J, Duncan SA, Malarkannan S, Rao S. Sall4 overexpression blocks murine hematopoiesis in a dose-dependent manner. Exp Hematol. 2015 Jan; 43(1):53-64.e1-8. PMID: 25246269; PMCID: PMC4268405.
    13. Noto FK, Determan MR, Cai J, Cayo MA, Mallanna SK, Duncan SA. Aneuploidy is permissive for hepatocyte-like cell differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells. BMC Res Notes. 2014 Jul 08; 7:437. PMID: 25002137; PMCID: PMC4105394.
    14. Kolander KD, Holtz ML, Cossette SM, Duncan SA, Misra RP. Epicardial GATA factors regulate early coronary vascular plexus formation. Dev Biol. 2014 Feb 01; 386(1):204-15. PMID: 24380800; PMCID: PMC3962664.
    15. Fox IJ, Duncan SA. Engineering liver tissue from induced pluripotent stem cells: a first step in generating new organs for transplantation? Hepatology. 2013 Dec; 58(6):2198-201. PMID: 24114924; PMCID: PMC3856896.
    16. Mallanna SK, Duncan SA. Differentiation of hepatocytes from pluripotent stem cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol. 2013 Sep 20; 26:Unit 1G.4.. PMID: 24510789; PMCID: PMC3920294.
    17. Shan J, Schwartz RE, Ross NT, Logan DJ, Thomas D, Duncan SA, North TE, Goessling W, Carpenter AE, Bhatia SN. Identification of small molecules for human hepatocyte expansion and iPS differentiation. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Aug; 9(8):514-20. PMID: 23728495; PMCID: PMC3720805.
    18. Xuan S, Borok MJ, Decker KJ, Battle MA, Duncan SA, Hale MA, Macdonald RJ, Sussel L. Pancreas-specific deletion of mouse Gata4 and Gata6 causes pancreatic agenesis. J Clin Invest. 2012 Oct; 122(10):3516-28. PMID: 23006325; PMCID: PMC3461916.
    19. Cayo MA, Cai J, DeLaForest A, Noto FK, Nagaoka M, Clark BS, Collery RF, Si-Tayeb K, Duncan SA. JD induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes faithfully recapitulate the pathophysiology of familial hypercholesterolemia. Hepatology. 2012 Dec; 56(6):2163-71. PMID: 22653811; PMCID: PMC3900031.
    20. Sepac A, Si-Tayeb K, Sedlic F, Barrett S, Canfield S, Duncan SA, Bosnjak ZJ, Lough JW. Comparison of cardiomyogenic potential among human ESC and iPSC lines. Cell Transplant. 2012; 21(11):2523-30. PMID: 22863088; PMCID: PMC3522765.
    21. Yu Y, Liu H, Ikeda Y, Amiot BP, Rinaldo P, Duncan SA, Nyberg SL. Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells: relevance to cellular therapies. Stem Cell Res. 2012 Nov; 9(3):196-207. PMID: 22885101; PMCID: PMC3619384.
    22. Gundry RL, Riordon DR, Tarasova Y, Chuppa S, Bhattacharya S, Juhasz O, Wiedemeier O, Milanovich S, Noto FK, Tchernyshyov I, Raginski K, Bausch-Fluck D, Tae HJ, Marshall S, Duncan SA, Wollscheid B, Wersto RP, Rao S, Van Eyk JE, Boheler KR. A cell surfaceome map for immunophenotyping and sorting pluripotent stem cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Aug; 11(8):303-16. PMID: 22493178; PMCID: PMC3412963.
    23. Zhang C, Wang G, Zheng Z, Maddipati KR, Zhang X, Dyson G, Williams P, Duncan SA, Kaufman RJ, Zhang K. Endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor cAMP responsive element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific, regulates hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis upon metabolic stress in mice. Hepatology. 2012 Apr; 55(4):1070-82. PMID: 22095841; PMCID: PMC3319338.
    24. Schwartz RE, Trehan K, Andrus L, Sheahan TP, Ploss A, Duncan SA, Rice CM, Bhatia SN. Modeling hepatitis C virus infection using human induced pluripotent stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Feb 14; 109(7):2544-8. PMID: 22308485; PMCID: PMC3289320.
    25. DeLaForest A, Nagaoka M, Si-Tayeb K, Noto FK, Konopka G, Battle MA, Duncan SA. HNF4A is essential for specification of hepatic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Development. 2011 Oct; 138(19):4143-53. PMID: 21852396; PMCID: PMC3171218.
    26. Van Orman JR, Si-Tayeb K, Duncan SA, Lough J. Induction of cardiomyogenesis in human embryonic stem cells by human embryonic stem cell-derived definitive endoderm. Stem Cells Dev. 2012 Apr 10; 21(6):987-94. PMID: 21627569; PMCID: PMC3315759.
    27. Lee JH, Giannikopoulos P, Duncan SA, Wang J, Johansen CT, Brown JD, Plutzky J, Hegele RA, Glimcher LH, Lee AH. The transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein H regulates triglyceride metabolism. Nat Med. 2011 Jun 12; 17(7):812-5. PMID: 21666694; PMCID: PMC3374483.
    28. Beuling E, Baffour-Awuah NY, Stapleton KA, Aronson BE, Noah TK, Shroyer NF, Duncan SA, Fleet JC, Krasinski SD. GATA factors regulate proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in small intestine of mature mice. Gastroenterology. 2011 Apr; 140(4):1219-1229.e1-2. PMID: 21262227; PMCID: PMC3541694.
    29. Sepac A, Sedlic F, Si-Tayeb K, Lough J, Duncan SA, Bienengraeber M, Park F, Kim J, Bosnjak ZJ. Isoflurane preconditioning elicits competent endogenous mechanisms of protection from oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells. Anesthesiology. 2010 Oct; 113(4):906-16. PMID: 20823757; PMCID: PMC2945423.
    30. van Berlo JH, Elrod JW, van den Hoogenhof MM, York AJ, Aronow BJ, Duncan SA, Molkentin JD. The transcription factor GATA-6 regulates pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2010 Oct 15; 107(8):1032-40. PMID: 20705924; PMCID: PMC2967029.
    31. Si-Tayeb K, Noto FK, Sepac A, Sedlic F, Bosnjak ZJ, Lough JW, Duncan SA. Generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells by simple transient transfection of plasmid DNA encoding reprogramming factors. BMC Dev Biol. 2010 Aug 03; 10:81. PMID: 20682060; PMCID: PMC2923111.
    32. Nagaoka M, Si-Tayeb K, Akaike T, Duncan SA. Culture of human pluripotent stem cells using completely defined conditions on a recombinant E-cadherin substratum. BMC Dev Biol. 2010 Jun 02; 10:60. PMID: 20525219; PMCID: PMC2896937.
    33. Taube JH, Allton K, Duncan SA, Shen L, Barton MC. Foxa1 functions as a pioneer transcription factor at transposable elements to activate Afp during differentiation of embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 21; 285(21):16135-44. PMID: 20348100; PMCID: PMC2871482.
    34. Si-Tayeb K, Lemaigre FP, Duncan SA. Organogenesis and development of the liver. Dev Cell. 2010 Feb 16; 18(2):175-89. PMID: 20159590.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Si-Tayeb K, Noto FK, Nagaoka M, Li J, Battle MA, Duris C, North PE, Dalton S, Duncan SA. Highly efficient generation of human hepatocyte-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells. Hepatology. 2010 Jan; 51(1):297-305. PMID: 19998274; PMCID: PMC2946078.
    36. Nagaoka M, Duncan SA. Transcriptional control of hepatocyte differentiation. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010; 97:79-101. PMID: 21074730.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Vecchi C, Montosi G, Zhang K, Lamberti I, Duncan SA, Kaufman RJ, Pietrangelo A. ER stress controls iron metabolism through induction of hepcidin. Science. 2009 Aug 14; 325(5942):877-80. PMID: 19679815; PMCID: PMC2923557.
    38. Sun K, Battle MA, Misra RP, Duncan SA. Hepatocyte expression of serum response factor is essential for liver function, hepatocyte proliferation and survival, and postnatal body growth in mice. Hepatology. 2009 May; 49(5):1645-54. PMID: 19205030; PMCID: PMC2810404.
    39. Yoon AJ, Melduni RM, Duncan SA, Ostfeld RJ, Travin MI. The effect of beta-blockers on the diagnostic accuracy of vasodilator pharmacologic SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Cardiol. 2009 May-Jun; 16(3):358-67. PMID: 19266249.
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    40. Luebke-Wheeler J, Zhang K, Battle M, Si-Tayeb K, Garrison W, Chhinder S, Li J, Kaufman RJ, Duncan SA. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha is implicated in endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced acute phase response by regulating expression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein H. Hepatology. 2008 Oct; 48(4):1242-50. PMID: 18704925; PMCID: PMC2717709.
    41. Walters GD, Rogers R, Berry DT, Miller HA, Duncan SA, McCusker PJ, Payne JW, Granacher RP. Malingering as a categorical or dimensional construct: the latent structure of feigned psychopathology as measured by the SIRS and MMPI-2. Psychol Assess. 2008 Sep; 20(3):238-47. PMID: 18778160.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Battle MA, Bondow BJ, Iverson MA, Adams SJ, Jandacek RJ, Tso P, Duncan SA. GATA4 is essential for jejunal function in mice. Gastroenterology. 2008 Nov; 135(5):1676-1686.e1. PMID: 18812176; PMCID: PMC2844802.
    43. Nagaoka M, Hagiwara Y, Takemura K, Murakami Y, Li J, Duncan SA, Akaike T. Design of the artificial acellular feeder layer for the efficient propagation of mouse embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2008 Sep 26; 283(39):26468-76. PMID: 18614540; PMCID: PMC3258920.
    44. Zhao R, Watt AJ, Battle MA, Li J, Bondow BJ, Duncan SA. Loss of both GATA4 and GATA6 blocks cardiac myocyte differentiation and results in acardia in mice. Dev Biol. 2008 May 15; 317(2):614-9. PMID: 18400219; PMCID: PMC2423416.
    45. Walters GD, Diamond PM, Magaletta PR, Geyer MD, Duncan SA. Taxometric analysis of the antisocial features scale of the personality assessment inventory in federal prison inmates. Assessment. 2007 Dec; 14(4):351-60. PMID: 17986653.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Heineke J, Auger-Messier M, Xu J, Oka T, Sargent MA, York A, Klevitsky R, Vaikunth S, Duncan SA, Aronow BJ, Robbins J, Crombleholme TM, Cromblehol TM, Molkentin JD. Cardiomyocyte GATA4 functions as a stress-responsive regulator of angiogenesis in the murine heart. J Clin Invest. 2007 Nov; 117(11):3198-210. PMID: 17975667; PMCID: PMC2045611.
    47. Qu X, Lam E, Doughman YQ, Chen Y, Chou YT, Lam M, Turakhia M, Dunwoodie SL, Watanabe M, Xu B, Duncan SA, Yang YC. Cited2, a coactivator of HNF4alpha, is essential for liver development. EMBO J. 2007 Oct 31; 26(21):4445-56. PMID: 17932483; PMCID: PMC2063472.
    48. Walters GD, Duncan SA, Mitchell-Perez K. The latent structure of psychopathy: a taxometric investigation of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised in a heterogeneous sample of male prison inmates. Assessment. 2007 Sep; 14(3):270-8. PMID: 17690383.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Konopka G, Tekiela J, Iverson M, Wells C, Duncan SA. Junctional adhesion molecule-A is critical for the formation of pseudocanaliculi and modulates E-cadherin expression in hepatic cells. J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21; 282(38):28137-48. PMID: 17623668.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Watt AJ, Zhao R, Li J, Duncan SA. Development of the mammalian liver and ventral pancreas is dependent on GATA4. BMC Dev Biol. 2007 Apr 23; 7:37. PMID: 17451603; PMCID: PMC1877807.
    51. Lerch-Gaggl AF, Sun K, Duncan SA. Light chain 1 of microtubule-associated protein 1B can negatively regulate the action of Pes1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Apr 13; 282(15):11308-16. PMID: 17308336.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Nelson TJ, Ge ZD, Van Orman J, Barron M, Rudy-Reil D, Hacker TA, Misra R, Duncan SA, Auchampach JA, Lough JW. Improved cardiac function in infarcted mice after treatment with pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006 Nov; 288(11):1216-24. PMID: 17004246; PMCID: PMC2566533.
    53. Sirois J, Côté JF, Charest A, Uetani N, Bourdeau A, Duncan SA, Daniels E, Tremblay ML. Essential function of PTP-PEST during mouse embryonic vascularization, mesenchyme formation, neurogenesis and early liver development. Mech Dev. 2006 Dec; 123(12):869-80. PMID: 17070019; PMCID: PMC4671782.
    54. Xin M, Davis CA, Molkentin JD, Lien CL, Duncan SA, Richardson JA, Olson EN. A threshold of GATA4 and GATA6 expression is required for cardiovascular development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 25; 103(30):11189-94. PMID: 16847256; PMCID: PMC1544063.
    55. Battle MA, Konopka G, Parviz F, Gaggl AL, Yang C, Sladek FM, Duncan SA. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha orchestrates expression of cell adhesion proteins during the epithelial transformation of the developing liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 30; 103(22):8419-24. PMID: 16714383; PMCID: PMC1482507.
    56. Sodhi CP, Li J, Duncan SA. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6. BMC Dev Biol. 2006 Apr 12; 6:19. PMID: 16611361; PMCID: PMC1481595.
    57. Rufibach LE, Duncan SA, Battle M, Deeb SS. Transcriptional regulation of the human hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene promoter. J Lipid Res. 2006 Jul; 47(7):1463-77. PMID: 16603721.
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    58. Garrison WD, Battle MA, Yang C, Kaestner KH, Sladek FM, Duncan SA. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha is essential for embryonic development of the mouse colon. Gastroenterology. 2006 Apr; 130(4):1207-20. PMID: 16618389; PMCID: PMC3581272.
    59. Oka T, Maillet M, Watt AJ, Schwartz RJ, Aronow BJ, Duncan SA, Molkentin JD. Cardiac-specific deletion of Gata4 reveals its requirement for hypertrophy, compensation, and myocyte viability. Circ Res. 2006 Mar 31; 98(6):837-45. PMID: 16514068.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Duncan SA. Generation of embryos directly from embryonic stem cells by tetraploid embryo complementation reveals a role for GATA factors in organogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Dec; 33(Pt 6):1534-6. PMID: 16246163.
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    61. Zhao R, Duncan SA. Embryonic development of the liver. Hepatology. 2005 May; 41(5):956-67. PMID: 15841465.
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    62. Zhao R, Watt AJ, Li J, Luebke-Wheeler J, Morrisey EE, Duncan SA. GATA6 is essential for embryonic development of the liver but dispensable for early heart formation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Apr; 25(7):2622-31. PMID: 15767668; PMCID: PMC1061656.
    63. Makita T, Duncan SA, Sucov HM. Retinoic acid, hypoxia, and GATA factors cooperatively control the onset of fetal liver erythropoietin expression and erythropoietic differentiation. Dev Biol. 2005 Apr 01; 280(1):59-72. PMID: 15766748.
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    64. Gupta RK, Vatamaniuk MZ, Lee CS, Flaschen RC, Fulmer JT, Matschinsky FM, Duncan SA, Kaestner KH. The MODY1 gene HNF-4alpha regulates selected genes involved in insulin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2005 Apr; 115(4):1006-15. PMID: 15761495; PMCID: PMC1059446.
    65. Watt AJ, Battle MA, Li J, Duncan SA. GATA4 is essential for formation of the proepicardium and regulates cardiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Aug 24; 101(34):12573-8. PMID: 15310850; PMCID: PMC515098.
    66. Lazarevich NL, Cheremnova OA, Varga EV, Ovchinnikov DA, Kudrjavtseva EI, Morozova OV, Fleishman DI, Engelhardt NV, Duncan SA. Progression of HCC in mice is associated with a downregulation in the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factors. Hepatology. 2004 Apr; 39(4):1038-47. PMID: 15057908.
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    67. Nelson TJ, Duncan SA, Misra RP. Conserved enhancer in the serum response factor promoter controls expression during early coronary vasculogenesis. Circ Res. 2004 Apr 30; 94(8):1059-66. PMID: 15001533.
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    68. Parviz F, Matullo C, Garrison WD, Savatski L, Adamson JW, Ning G, Kaestner KH, Rossi JM, Zaret KS, Duncan SA. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha controls the development of a hepatic epithelium and liver morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 2003 Jul; 34(3):292-6. PMID: 12808453.
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    69. Watt AJ, Garrison WD, Duncan SA. HNF4: a central regulator of hepatocyte differentiation and function. Hepatology. 2003 Jun; 37(6):1249-53. PMID: 12774000.
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    70. Tirona RG, Lee W, Leake BF, Lan LB, Cline CB, Lamba V, Parviz F, Duncan SA, Inoue Y, Gonzalez FJ, Schuetz EG, Kim RB. The orphan nuclear receptor HNF4alpha determines PXR- and CAR-mediated xenobiotic induction of CYP3A4. Nat Med. 2003 Feb; 9(2):220-4. PMID: 12514743.
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    71. Duncan SA. Mechanisms controlling early development of the liver. Mech Dev. 2003 Jan; 120(1):19-33. PMID: 12490293.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Misra RP, Duncan SA. Gene targeting in the mouse: advances in introduction of transgenes into the genome by homologous recombination. Endocrine. 2002 Dec; 19(3):229-38. PMID: 12624422.
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    73. Lerch-Gaggl A, Haque J, Li J, Ning G, Traktman P, Duncan SA. Pescadillo is essential for nucleolar assembly, ribosome biogenesis, and mammalian cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 22; 277(47):45347-55. PMID: 12237316.
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    74. Duncan SA, Ausborn DL. The use of reliable digits to detect malingering in a criminal forensic pretrial population. Assessment. 2002 Mar; 9(1):56-61. PMID: 11911235.
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    75. Parviz F, Li J, Kaestner KH, Duncan SA. Generation of a conditionally null allele of hnf4alpha. Genesis. 2002 Feb; 32(2):130-3. PMID: 11857799.
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    76. Misra RP, Bronson SK, Xiao Q, Garrison W, Li J, Zhao R, Duncan SA. Generation of single-copy transgenic mouse embryos directly from ES cells by tetraploid embryo complementation. BMC Biotechnol. 2001; 1:12. PMID: 11782291; PMCID: PMC64498.
    77. Duncan SA, Watt AJ. BMPs on the road to hepatogenesis. Genes Dev. 2001 Aug 01; 15(15):1879-84. PMID: 11485983.
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    78. Zhao R, Fahs SA, Weiler H, Duncan SA. An efficient method to successively introduce transgenes into a given genomic locus in the mouse. BMC Dev Biol. 2001; 1:10. PMID: 11430765; PMCID: PMC33517.
    79. Duncan SA. The pancreas and its heartless beginnings. Nat Genet. 2001 Apr; 27(4):355-6. PMID: 11279510.
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    80. Haque J, Boger S, Li J, Duncan SA. The murine Pes1 gene encodes a nuclear protein containing a BRCT domain. Genomics. 2000 Dec 01; 70(2):201-10. PMID: 11112348.
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    81. Duncan SA. Transcriptional regulation of liver development. Dev Dyn. 2000 Oct; 219(2):131-42. PMID: 11002334.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Li J, Ning G, Duncan SA. Mammalian hepatocyte differentiation requires the transcription factor HNF-4alpha. Genes Dev. 2000 Feb 15; 14(4):464-74. PMID: 10691738; PMCID: PMC316377.
    83. Shih DQ, Navas MA, Kuwajima S, Duncan SA, Stoffel M. Impaired glucose homeostasis and neonatal mortality in hepatocyte nuclear factor 3alpha-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Aug 31; 96(18):10152-7. PMID: 10468578; PMCID: PMC17858.
    84. Wilcock D, Duncan SA, Traktman P, Zhang WH, Smith GL. The vaccinia virus A4OR gene product is a nonstructural, type II membrane glycoprotein that is expressed at the cell surface. J Gen Virol. 1999 Aug; 80 ( Pt 8):2137-48. PMID: 10466813.
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    85. Rausa FM, Ye H, Lim L, Duncan SA, Costa RH. In situ hybridization with 33P-labeled RNA probes for determination of cellular expression patterns of liver transcription factors in mouse embryos. Methods. 1998 Sep; 16(1):29-41. PMID: 9774514.
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    86. Duncan SA, Navas MA, Dufort D, Rossant J, Stoffel M. Regulation of a transcription factor network required for differentiation and metabolism. Science. 1998 Jul 31; 281(5377):692-5. PMID: 9685261.
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    87. Stoffel M, Duncan SA. The maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY1) transcription factor HNF4alpha regulates expression of genes required for glucose transport and metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Nov 25; 94(24):13209-14. PMID: 9371825; PMCID: PMC24288.
    88. Molkentin JD, Lin Q, Duncan SA, Olson EN. Requirement of the transcription factor GATA4 for heart tube formation and ventral morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1997 Apr 15; 11(8):1061-72. PMID: 9136933.
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    89. Signorini S, Liao YJ, Duncan SA, Jan LY, Stoffel M. Normal cerebellar development but susceptibility to seizures in mice lacking G protein-coupled, inwardly rectifying K+ channel GIRK2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Feb 04; 94(3):923-7. PMID: 9023358; PMCID: PMC19615.
    90. Duncan SA, Zhong Z, Wen Z, Darnell JE. STAT signaling is active during early mammalian development. Dev Dyn. 1997 Feb; 208(2):190-8. PMID: 9022056.
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    91. Duncan SA, Nagy A, Chan W. Murine gastrulation requires HNF-4 regulated gene expression in the visceral endoderm: tetraploid rescue of Hnf-4(-/-) embryos. Development. 1997 Jan; 124(2):279-87. PMID: 9053305.
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    92. Chen J, Chang S, Duncan SA, Okano HJ, Fishell G, Aderem A. Disruption of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure and results in anencephaly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jun 25; 93(13):6275-9. PMID: 8692805; PMCID: PMC39012.
    93. Chen WS, Manova K, Weinstein DC, Duncan SA, Plump AS, Prezioso VR, Bachvarova RF, Darnell JE. Disruption of the HNF-4 gene, expressed in visceral endoderm, leads to cell death in embryonic ectoderm and impaired gastrulation of mouse embryos. Genes Dev. 1994 Oct 15; 8(20):2466-77. PMID: 7958910.
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    94. Duncan SA, Manova K, Chen WS, Hoodless P, Weinstein DC, Bachvarova RF, Darnell JE. Expression of transcription factor HNF-4 in the extraembryonic endoderm, gut, and nephrogenic tissue of the developing mouse embryo: HNF-4 is a marker for primary endoderm in the implanting blastocyst. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Aug 02; 91(16):7598-602. PMID: 8052626; PMCID: PMC44449.
    95. Duncan SA, Smith GL. Vaccinia virus gene SalF5R is non-essential for virus replication in vitro and in vivo. J Gen Virol. 1992 May; 73 ( Pt 5):1235-42. PMID: 1588324.
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    96. Duncan SA, Smith GL. Identification and characterization of an extracellular envelope glycoprotein affecting vaccinia virus egress. J Virol. 1992 Mar; 66(3):1610-21. PMID: 1738204; PMCID: PMC240895.
    97. Kerr SM, Johnston LH, Odell M, Duncan SA, Law KM, Smith GL. Vaccinia DNA ligase complements Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9, localizes in cytoplasmic factories and affects virulence and virus sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. EMBO J. 1991 Dec; 10(13):4343-50. PMID: 1756739; PMCID: PMC453187.
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