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Sheldon E. Litwin

TitleEndowed Chair, Countess Alicia Spaulding-Palozzi SmartState Endowed Chair in Cardiovascular Imaging
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentCardiology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 592
BM 232
Thurmond Gazes - 30 Courtenay Drive
Phone843-792-6866
Fax843-876-4809
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    I am interested in the role of obesity as a contributor to heart disease (particularly heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) and weight loss as a therapeutic target for patients with heart disease. I use cardiac imaging as a tool for studying this and other aspects of cardiac pathophysiology.

    Collapse keywords
    Weight Control, Cardiovascular, Heart

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Litwin SE, Zile MR. Should We Test for Diastolic Dysfunction? How and How Often? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2019 Jun 07. PMID: 31202743.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ebersberger U, Bernard ML, Schoepf UJ, Wince WB, Litwin SE, Wang Y, Blanke P, Makowski MR, McQuiston AD, Silverman JR, Gray JC, Tesche C, Duguay TM, Schmidt M, Wharton JM, Bayer RR. Cardiac Computed Tomography for Atrial Fibrillation Patients Undergoing Ablation: Implications for the Prediction of Early Recurrence. J Thorac Imaging. 2019 May 27. PMID: 31145188.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Litwin SE, Coles A, Pagidipati N, Lee KL, Pellikka PA, Mark DB, Udelson JE, Hoffmann U, Douglas PS. Effects of obesity on noninvasive test results in patients with suspected cardiac ischemia: Insights from the PROMISE trial. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2019 Mar 27. PMID: 30954400.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Vest AR, Chan M, Deswal A, Givertz MM, Lekavich C, Lennie T, Litwin SE, Parsly L, Rodgers JE, Rich MW, Schulze PC, Slader A, Desai A. Nutrition, Obesity, and Cachexia in Patients With Heart Failure: A Consensus Statement from the Heart Failure Society of America Scientific Statements Committee. J Card Fail. 2019 May; 25(5):380-400. PMID: 30877038.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Pagidipati NJ, Coles A, Hemal K, Lee KL, Dolor RJ, Pellikka PA, Mark DB, Patel MR, Litwin SE, Daubert MA, Shah SH, Hoffmann U, Douglas PS. Sex differences in management and outcomes of patients with stable symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease: Insights from the PROMISE trial. Am Heart J. 2019 Feb; 208:28-36. PMID: 30529930.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Aggarwal M, Bozkurt B, Panjrath G, Aggarwal B, Ostfeld RJ, Barnard ND, Gaggin H, Freeman AM, Allen K, Madan S, Massera D, Litwin SE. Lifestyle Modifications for Preventing and Treating Heart Failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Nov 06; 72(19):2391-2405. PMID: 30384895.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shah SJ, Feldman T, Ricciardi MJ, Kahwash R, Lilly S, Litwin S, Nielsen CD, van der Harst P, Hoendermis E, Penicka M, Bartunek J, Fail PS, Kaye DM, Walton A, Petrie MC, Walker N, Basuray A, Yakubov S, Hummel SL, Chetcuti S, Forde-McLean R, Herrmann HC, Burkhoff D, Massaro JM, Cleland JGF, Mauri L. One-Year Safety and Clinical Outcomes of a Transcatheter Interatrial Shunt Device for the Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in the Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure (REDUCE LAP-HF I) Trial: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2018 Oct 01; 3(10):968-977. PMID: 30167646.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Freeman AM, Morris PB, Aspry K, Gordon NF, Barnard ND, Esselstyn CB, Ros E, Devries S, O'Keefe J, Miller M, Ornish D, Williams KA, Batts T, Ostfeld RJ, Litwin S, Aggarwal M, Werner A, Allen K, White B, Kris-Etherton P. A Clinician's Guide for Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies: Part II. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018 Jul 31; 72(5):553-568. PMID: 30049315.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Benson TW, Weintraub NL, Kim HW, Seigler N, Kumar S, Pye J, Horimatsu T, Pellenberg R, Stepp DW, Lucas R, Bogdanov VY, Litwin SE, Brittain JE, Harris RA. A single high-fat meal provokes pathological erythrocyte remodeling and increases myeloperoxidase levels: implications for acute coronary syndrome. Lab Invest. 2018 10; 98(10):1300-1310. PMID: 29572498.
      View in: PubMed
    10. El Hajj S, Litwin SE. To Clip or Not to Clip? Can We Predict Which Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation Will Benefit From Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair? J Card Fail. 2018 Mar; 24(3):146-147. PMID: 29426020.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Albrecht MH, Nance JW, Schoepf UJ, Jacobs BE, Bayer RR, Litwin SE, Reynolds MA, Otani K, Mangold S, Varga-Szemes A, De Santis D, Eid M, Apfaltrer G, Tesche C, Goeller M, Vogl TJ, De Cecco CN. Diagnostic accuracy of low and high tube voltage coronary CT angiography using an X-ray tube potential-tailored contrast medium injection protocol. Eur Radiol. 2018 May; 28(5):2134-2142. PMID: 29181587.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Feldman T, Mauri L, Kahwash R, Litwin S, Ricciardi MJ, van der Harst P, Penicka M, Fail PS, Kaye DM, Petrie MC, Basuray A, Hummel SL, Forde-McLean R, Nielsen CD, Lilly S, Massaro JM, Burkhoff D, Shah SJ. Transcatheter Interatrial Shunt Device for the Treatment of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction (REDUCE LAP-HF I [Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure]): A Phase 2, Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial. Circulation. 2018 01 23; 137(4):364-375. PMID: 29142012.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Avelar E, Truong QA, Inyangetor D, Marfatia R, Yang C, Kaloudis E, Tannenbaum S, Rosito G, Litwin S. Effect of Adjuvant Chemotherapy on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Women with Newly Diagnosed Primary Breast Cancer: A Pilot Prospective Longitudinal Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. J Thorac Imaging. 2017 Nov; 32(6):365-369. PMID: 28692525.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Tesche C, De Cecco CN, Albrecht MH, Duguay TM, Bayer RR, Litwin SE, Steinberg DH, Schoepf UJ. Coronary CT Angiography-derived Fractional Flow Reserve. Radiology. 2017 10; 285(1):17-33. PMID: 28926310.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Adams TD, Davidson LE, Litwin SE, Kim J, Kolotkin RL, Nanjee MN, Gutierrez JM, Frogley SJ, Ibele AR, Brinton EA, Hopkins PN, McKinlay R, Simper SC, Hunt SC. Weight and Metabolic Outcomes 12 Years after Gastric Bypass. N Engl J Med. 2017 09 21; 377(12):1143-1155. PMID: 28930514.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Tesche C, Vliegenthart R, Duguay TM, De Cecco CN, Albrecht MH, De Santis D, Langenbach MC, Varga-Szemes A, Jacobs BE, Jochheim D, Baquet M, Bayer RR, Litwin SE, Hoffmann E, Steinberg DH, Schoepf UJ. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography-Derived Fractional Flow Reserve for Therapeutic Decision Making. Am J Cardiol. 2017 Dec 15; 120(12):2121-2127. PMID: 29102036.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Wende AR, Kim J, Holland WL, Wayment BE, O'Neill BT, Tuinei J, Brahma MK, Pepin ME, McCrory MA, Luptak I, Halade GV, Litwin SE, Abel ED. Glucose transporter 4-deficient hearts develop maladaptive hypertrophy in response to physiological or pathological stresses. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017 Dec 01; 313(6):H1098-H1108. PMID: 28822962.
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    18. Duguay TM, Tesche C, Vliegenthart R, De Cecco CN, Lin H, Albrecht MH, Varga-Szemes A, De Santis D, Ebersberger U, Bayer RR, Litwin SE, Hoffmann E, Steinberg DH, Schoepf UJ. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography-Derived Fractional Flow Reserve Based on Machine Learning for Risk Stratification of Non-Culprit Coronary Narrowings in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2017 Oct 15; 120(8):1260-1266. PMID: 28844517.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Benton SM, Litwin SE. Round Valve in an Oval Hole: Right-Sizing Prosthetic Aortic Valves With Preoperative Computed Tomography. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 05; 10(5). PMID: 28487321.
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    20. Yiew NKH, Chatterjee TK, Tang YL, Pellenberg R, Stansfield BK, Bagi Z, Fulton DJ, Stepp DW, Chen W, Patel V, Kamath VM, Litwin SE, Hui DY, Rudich SM, Kim HW, Weintraub NL. A novel role for the Wnt inhibitor APCDD1 in adipocyte differentiation: Implications for diet-induced obesity. J Biol Chem. 2017 04 14; 292(15):6312-6324. PMID: 28242765.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Varga-Szemes A, Wichmann JL, Schoepf UJ, Suranyi P, De Cecco CN, Muscogiuri G, Caruso D, Yamada RT, Litwin SE, Tesche C, Duguay TM, Giri S, Vliegenthart R, Todoran TM. Accuracy of Noncontrast Quiescent-Interval Single-Shot Lower Extremity MR Angiography Versus CT Angiography for Diagnosis of Peripheral Artery Disease: Comparison With Digital Subtraction Angiography. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2017 10; 10(10 Pt A):1116-1124. PMID: 28109932.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Varga-Szemes A, van der Geest RJ, Schoepf UJ, Spottiswoode BS, De Cecco CN, Muscogiuri G, Wichmann JL, Mangold S, Fuller SR, Maurovich-Horvat P, Merkely B, Litwin SE, Vliegenthart R, Suranyi P. Effect of inversion time on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement quantification evaluated with synthetic inversion recovery MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 2017 Aug; 27(8):3235-3243. PMID: 28050692.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Tesche C, Caruso D, De Cecco CN, Shuler DC, Rames JD, Albrecht MH, Duguay TM, Varga-Szemes A, Jochheim D, Baquet M, Bayer RR, Ebersberger U, Litwin SE, Chiaramida SA, Hoffmann E, Schoepf UJ. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography-Derived Plaque Quantification in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2017 03 01; 119(5):712-718. PMID: 28024654.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Tesche C, De Cecco CN, Vliegenthart R, Albrecht MH, Varga-Szemes A, Duguay TM, Ebersberger U, Bayer RR, Canstein C, Schmidt B, Allmendinger T, Litwin SE, Morris PB, Flohr TG, Hoffmann E, Schoepf UJ. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction Using Low-Voltage Computed Tomography Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring With Tin Filtration. Am J Cardiol. 2017 02 15; 119(4):675-680. PMID: 27986261.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Tesche C, De Cecco CN, Stubenrauch A, Jacobs BE, Varga-Szemes A, Litwin SE, Ball BD, Baquet M, Jochheim D, Ebersberger U, Bayer RR, Hoffmann E, Steinberg DH, Schoepf UJ. Correlation and predictive value of aortic root calcification markers with coronary artery calcification and obstructive coronary artery disease. Radiol Med. 2017 Feb; 122(2):113-120. PMID: 27844188.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Takx RAP, Vliegenthart R, Schoepf UJ, Nance JW, Bamberg F, Abro JA, Carr CM, Litwin SE, Apfaltrer P. Prognostic value of CT-derived left atrial and left ventricular measures in patients with acute chest pain. Eur J Radiol. 2017 Jan; 86:163-168. PMID: 28027742.
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    27. Muscogiuri G, Rehwald WG, Schoepf UJ, Suranyi P, Litwin SE, De Cecco CN, Wichmann JL, Mangold S, Caruso D, Fuller SR, Bayer Nd RR, Varga-Szemes A. T(Rho) and magnetization transfer and INvErsion recovery (TRAMINER)-prepared imaging: A novel contrast-enhanced flow-independent dark-blood technique for the evaluation of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement in patients with myocardial infarction. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 05; 45(5):1429-1437. PMID: 27690324.
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    28. Waring AA, Litwin SE. Redefining Reverse Remodeling: Can Echocardiography Refine Our Ability to Assess Response to Heart Failure Treatments? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 09 20; 68(12):1277-80. PMID: 27634118.
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    29. Felmly LM, De Cecco CN, Schoepf UJ, Varga-Szemes A, Mangold S, McQuiston AD, Litwin SE, Bayer RR, Vogl TJ, Wichmann JL. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning. Eur Radiol. 2017 May; 27(5):1944-1953. PMID: 27553939.
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    30. Pagidipati NJ, Hemal K, Coles A, Mark DB, Dolor RJ, Pellikka PA, Hoffmann U, Litwin SE, Udelson J, Daubert MA, Shah SH, Martinez B, Lee KL, Douglas PS. Sex Differences in Functional and CT Angiography Testing in Patients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jun 07; 67(22):2607-16. PMID: 27058908.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Hemal K, Pagidipati NJ, Coles A, Dolor RJ, Mark DB, Pellikka PA, Hoffmann U, Litwin SE, Daubert MA, Shah SH, Ariani K, Bullock-Palmer RP, Martinez B, Lee KL, Douglas PS. Sex Differences in Demographics, Risk Factors, Presentation, and Noninvasive Testing in Stable Outpatients With Suspected Coronary Artery Disease: Insights From the PROMISE Trial. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2016 Apr; 9(4):337-46. PMID: 27017234.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Mangold S, Wichmann JL, Schoepf UJ, Litwin SE, Canstein C, Varga-Szemes A, Muscogiuri G, Fuller SR, Stubenrauch AC, Nikolaou K, De Cecco CN. Coronary CT angiography in obese patients using 3(rd) generation dual-source CT: effect of body mass index on image quality. Eur Radiol. 2016 Sep; 26(9):2937-46. PMID: 26712517.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Wichmann JL, Katzberg RW, Litwin SE, Zwerner PL, De Cecco CN, Vogl TJ, Costello P, Schoepf UJ. Contrast-Induced Nephropathy. Circulation. 2015 Nov 17; 132(20):1931-6. PMID: 26572669.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Wichmann JL, Varga-Szemes A, Suranyi P, Bayer RR, Litwin SE, De Cecco CN, Mangold S, Muscogiuri G, Fuller SR, Vogl TJ, Steinberg DH, Schoepf UJ. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Imaging Techniques for Aortic Root Sizing. J Thorac Imaging. 2015 Nov; 30(6):349-58. PMID: 26164166.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Litwin SE. Cardiac "Morphomics": Do We Need to Measure LV Mass and Geometry in Everyone? JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Sep; 8(9):1016-1018. PMID: 26381764.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Guha A, Maddox WR, Colombo R, Nahman NS, Kintziger KW, Waller JL, Diamond M, Murphy M, Kheda M, Litwin SE, Sorrentino RA. Cardiac implantable electronic device infection in patients with end-stage renal disease. Heart Rhythm. 2015 Dec; 12(12):2395-401. PMID: 26253036.
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    37. Ilkun O, Wilde N, Tuinei J, Pires KM, Zhu Y, Bugger H, Soto J, Wayment B, Olsen C, Litwin SE, Abel ED. Antioxidant treatment normalizes mitochondrial energetics and myocardial insulin sensitivity independently of changes in systemic metabolic homeostasis in a mouse model of the metabolic syndrome. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015 Aug; 85:104-16. PMID: 26004364.
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    38. Priester T, Ault TG, Davidson L, Gress R, Adams TD, Hunt SC, Litwin SE. Coronary calcium scores 6 years after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2015 Jan; 25(1):90-6. PMID: 24927692.
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    39. Litwin SE. Childhood obesity and adulthood cardiovascular disease: quantifying the lifetime cumulative burden of cardiovascular risk factors. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Oct 14; 64(15):1588-90. PMID: 25301462.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Murphy M, Krothapalli S, Cuellar J, Kanjanauthai S, Heeke B, Gomadam PS, Guha A, Barnes VA, Litwin SE, Sharma GK. Prognostic value of normal stress echocardiography in obese patients. J Obes. 2014; 2014:419724. PMID: 25258682.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Wei CH, Litwin SE. Hyperglycemia and adverse outcomes in acute coronary syndromes: is serum glucose the provocateur or innocent bystander? Diabetes. 2014 Jul; 63(7):2209-12. PMID: 24962919.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Litwin SE. Diabetes and the heart: is there objective evidence of a human diabetic cardiomyopathy? Diabetes. 2013 Oct; 62(10):3329-30. PMID: 24065790.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Kannan S, Muthusamy VR, Whitehead KJ, Wang L, Gomes AV, Litwin SE, Kensler TW, Abel ED, Hoidal JR, Rajasekaran NS. Nrf2 deficiency prevents reductive stress-induced hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Oct 01; 100(1):63-73. PMID: 23761402.
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    44. Litwin SE. Good fat, bad fat: the increasingly complex interplay of adipose tissue and the cardiovascular system. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jul 09; 62(2):136-137. PMID: 23665373.
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    45. Zhu Y, Pires KM, Whitehead KJ, Olsen CD, Wayment B, Zhang YC, Bugger H, Ilkun O, Litwin SE, Thomas G, Kozma SC, Abel ED. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (Mtor) is essential for murine embryonic heart development and growth. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54221. PMID: 23342106.
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    46. Adams TD, Davidson LE, Litwin SE, Hunt SC. Gastrointestinal surgery: cardiovascular risk reduction and improved long-term survival in patients with obesity and diabetes. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Dec; 14(6):606-15. PMID: 23054662.
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    47. Gupta A, Braunwald E, McNulty S, Felker GM, Gilbert EM, Alharethi R, Lee KL, Anstrom KJ, Redfield MM, Goldsmith SR, O'Connor CM, Bull DA, Stehlik J, Litwin SE. Obesity and the response to intensified diuretic treatment in decompensated heart failure: a DOSE trial substudy. J Card Fail. 2012 Nov; 18(11):837-44. PMID: 23141856.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Adams TD, Davidson LE, Litwin SE, Kolotkin RL, LaMonte MJ, Pendleton RC, Strong MB, Vinik R, Wanner NA, Hopkins PN, Gress RE, Walker JM, Cloward TV, Nuttall RT, Hammoud A, Greenwood JL, Crosby RD, McKinlay R, Simper SC, Smith SC, Hunt SC. Health benefits of gastric bypass surgery after 6 years. JAMA. 2012 Sep 19; 308(11):1122-31. PMID: 22990271.
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    49. Brown SM, Pittman JE, Hirshberg EL, Jones JP, Lanspa MJ, Kuttler KG, Litwin SE, Grissom CK. Diastolic dysfunction and mortality in early severe sepsis and septic shock: a prospective, observational echocardiography study. Crit Ultrasound J. 2012 May 04; 4(1):8. PMID: 22870900.
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    50. Litwin SE. Normal weight obesity: is bigger really badder? Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 May 01; 5(3):286-8. PMID: 22592008.
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    51. Bugger H, Riehle C, Jaishy B, Wende AR, Tuinei J, Chen D, Soto J, Pires KM, Boudina S, Theobald HA, Luptak I, Wayment B, Wang X, Litwin SE, Weimer BC, Abel ED. Genetic loss of insulin receptors worsens cardiac efficiency in diabetes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012 May; 52(5):1019-26. PMID: 22342406.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Bader FM, Islam N, Mehta NA, Worthen N, Ishihara S, Stehlik J, Gilbert EM, Litwin SE. Noninvasive diagnosis of cardiac allograft rejection using echocardiography indices of systolic and diastolic function. Transplant Proc. 2011 Dec; 43(10):3877-81. PMID: 22172863.
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    53. Cauchi C, Somaiah N, Engstrom PF, Litwin S, Lopez M, Lee J, Davey M, Bove B, von Mehren M. Evaluation of nilotinib in advanced GIST previously treated with imatinib and sunitinib. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012 Apr; 69(4):977-82. PMID: 22119758.
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    54. Benraouane F, Litwin SE. Reductions in cardiovascular risk after bariatric surgery. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011 Nov; 26(6):555-61. PMID: 21934498.
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    55. DiBella EV, Fluckiger JU, Chen L, Kim TH, Pack NA, Matthews B, Adluru G, Priester T, Kuppahally S, Jiji R, McGann C, Litwin SE. The effect of obesity on regadenoson-induced myocardial hyperemia: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012 Aug; 28(6):1435-44. PMID: 21968545.
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    56. Rosen BD, Litwin SE. The expanding role of computed tomography in the assessment of coronary artery disease and cardiac anatomy. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2011 Oct; 21(7):193-9. PMID: 22867698.
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    57. Pelberg R, Budoff M, Goraya T, Keevil J, Lesser J, Litwin S, Newton C, Ridner M, Rumberger J, Teague S, Winkler M. Training, competency, and certification in cardiac CT: a summary statement from the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2011 Sep-Oct; 5(5):279-85. PMID: 21875825.
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    58. Riehle C, Wende AR, Zaha VG, Pires KM, Wayment B, Olsen C, Bugger H, Buchanan J, Wang X, Moreira AB, Doenst T, Medina-Gomez G, Litwin SE, Lelliott CJ, Vidal-Puig A, Abel ED. PGC-1ß deficiency accelerates the transition to heart failure in pressure overload hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 16; 109(7):783-93. PMID: 21799152.
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    59. Kolotkin RL, LaMonte MJ, Litwin S, Crosby RD, Gress RE, Yanowitz FG, Hunt SC, Adams TD. Cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in bariatric surgery patients. Obes Surg. 2011 Apr; 21(4):457-64. PMID: 20820940.
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    60. Malasana G, Daccarett M, Kuppahally S, Wasmund SL, Litwin SE, Hamdan MH. High prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction in ICD patients with shocks: a potential new predictor in risk stratification. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2011 Aug; 31(2):165-9. PMID: 21327491.
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    61. Owan T, Avelar E, Morley K, Jiji R, Hall N, Krezowski J, Gallagher J, Williams Z, Preece K, Gundersen N, Strong MB, Pendleton RC, Segerson N, Cloward TV, Walker JM, Farney RJ, Gress RE, Adams TD, Hunt SC, Litwin SE. Favorable changes in cardiac geometry and function following gastric bypass surgery: 2-year follow-up in the Utah obesity study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Feb 08; 57(6):732-9. PMID: 21292133.
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    62. McIntosh SE, Testa M, Walker J, Wing-Gaia S, McIntosh SN, Litwin SE, Needham C, Tabin GC. Physiological profile of world-record-holder Sherpas. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011 Mar; 22(1):65-71. PMID: 21377123.
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    63. Symons JD, Hu P, Yang Y, Wang X, Zhang QJ, Wende AR, Sloan CL, Sena S, Abel ED, Litwin SE. Knockout of insulin receptors in cardiomyocytes attenuates coronary arterial dysfunction induced by pressure overload. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011 Jan; 300(1):H374-81. PMID: 20971769.
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    64. Wasmund SL, Owan T, Yanowitz FG, Adams TD, Hunt SC, Hamdan MH, Litwin SE. Improved heart rate recovery after marked weight loss induced by gastric bypass surgery: two-year follow up in the Utah Obesity Study. Heart Rhythm. 2011 Jan; 8(1):84-90. PMID: 20970524.
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    65. Kuppahally SS, Michaels AD, Tandar A, Gilbert EM, Litwin SE, Bader FM. Can echocardiographic evaluation of cardiopulmonary hemodynamics decrease right heart catheterizations in end-stage heart failure patients awaiting transplantation? Am J Cardiol. 2010 Dec 01; 106(11):1657-62. PMID: 21094370.
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    66. Kuppahally SS, Litwin SE, Green LS, Ishihara SM, Freedman RA, Michaels AD. Utility of intracardiac echocardiography for atrial baffle leak closure in repaired transposition of the great arteries. Echocardiography. 2010 Sep; 27(8):E90-3. PMID: 20849476.
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    67. Wende AR, Soto J, Olsen CD, Pires KM, Schell JC, Larrieu-Lahargue F, Litwin SE, Kakoki M, Takahashi N, Smithies O, Abel ED. Loss of bradykinin signaling does not accelerate the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 1 diabetic akita mice. Endocrinology. 2010 Aug; 151(8):3536-42. PMID: 20501666.
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    68. Kuppahally SS, Litwin SE, Michaels AD. Endomyocardial biopsy of right atrial angiosarcoma guided by intracardiac echocardiography. Cardiol Res Pract. 2010; 2010:681726. PMID: 20585357.
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    69. Litwin SE. Cardiac remodeling in obesity: time for a new paradigm. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Mar; 3(3):275-7. PMID: 20223424.
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    70. Litwin SE. Noninvasive assessment of pulmonary artery pressures: moving beyond tricuspid regurgitation velocities. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Mar; 3(2):132-3. PMID: 20233861.
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    71. Kuppahally SS, Green LS, Michaels AD, Ishihara SM, Freedman RA, Litwin SE. Inadvertent placement of pacemaker lead into the systemic ventricle in repaired D-transposition of the great arteries. Circulation. 2010 Feb 16; 121(6):e32. PMID: 20159837.
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    72. Kuppahally SS, Akoum N, Burgon NS, Badger TJ, Kholmovski EG, Vijayakumar S, Rao SN, Blauer J, Fish EN, Dibella EV, Macleod RS, McGann C, Litwin SE, Marrouche NF. Left atrial strain and strain rate in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation: relationship to left atrial structural remodeling detected by delayed-enhancement MRI. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 May; 3(3):231-9. PMID: 20133512.
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    73. Litwin SE, Priester TC. Diagnosing coronary artery disease in women: an update on cardiac imaging modalities. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan; 115(1):156-69. PMID: 20027049.
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    74. Wang H, Liu H, Jia Z, Jia Z, Olsen C, Litwin S, Guan G, Yang T. Nitro-oleic acid protects against endotoxin-induced endotoxemia and multiorgan injury in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Mar; 298(3):F754-62. PMID: 20032118.
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    75. Soesanto W, Lin HY, Hu E, Lefler S, Litwin SE, Sena S, Abel ED, Symons JD, Jalili T. Mammalian target of rapamycin is a critical regulator of cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2009 Dec; 54(6):1321-7. PMID: 19884565.
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    76. Priester TC, Litwin SE. Measuring progression of coronary atherosclerosis with computed tomography: searching for clarity among shades of gray. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2009 Nov-Dec; 3 Suppl 2:S81-90. PMID: 20129521.
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    77. Adams TD, Pendleton RC, Strong MB, Kolotkin RL, Walker JM, Litwin SE, Berjaoui WK, LaMonte MJ, Cloward TV, Avelar E, Owan TE, Nuttall RT, Gress RE, Crosby RD, Hopkins PN, Brinton EA, Rosamond WD, Wiebke GA, Yanowitz FG, Farney RJ, Halverson RC, Simper SC, Smith SC, Hunt SC. Health outcomes of gastric bypass patients compared to nonsurgical, nonintervened severely obese. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan; 18(1):121-30. PMID: 19498344.
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    78. Sena S, Hu P, Zhang D, Wang X, Wayment B, Olsen C, Avelar E, Abel ED, Litwin SE. Impaired insulin signaling accelerates cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction after myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009 Jun; 46(6):910-8. PMID: 19249310.
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    79. Boudina S, Bugger H, Sena S, O'Neill BT, Zaha VG, Ilkun O, Wright JJ, Mazumder PK, Palfreyman E, Tidwell TJ, Theobald H, Khalimonchuk O, Wayment B, Sheng X, Rodnick KJ, Centini R, Chen D, Litwin SE, Weimer BE, Abel ED. Contribution of impaired myocardial insulin signaling to mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the heart. Circulation. 2009 Mar 10; 119(9):1272-83. PMID: 19237663.
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    80. Wang N, Yang G, Jia Z, Zhang H, Aoyagi T, Soodvilai S, Symons JD, Schnermann JB, Gonzalez FJ, Litwin SE, Yang T. Vascular PPARgamma controls circadian variation in blood pressure and heart rate through Bmal1. Cell Metab. 2008 Dec; 8(6):482-91. PMID: 19041764.
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    81. Kim J, Wende AR, Sena S, Theobald HA, Soto J, Sloan C, Wayment BE, Litwin SE, Holzenberger M, LeRoith D, Abel ED. Insulin-like growth factor I receptor signaling is required for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Nov; 22(11):2531-43. PMID: 18801929.
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    82. Litwin SE. Which measures of obesity best predict cardiovascular risk? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Aug 19; 52(8):616-9. PMID: 18702963.
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    83. Bugger H, Boudina S, Hu XX, Tuinei J, Zaha VG, Theobald HA, Yun UJ, McQueen AP, Wayment B, Litwin SE, Abel ED. Type 1 diabetic akita mouse hearts are insulin sensitive but manifest structurally abnormal mitochondria that remain coupled despite increased uncoupling protein 3. Diabetes. 2008 Nov; 57(11):2924-32. PMID: 18678617.
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    84. Gupta S, Khan F, Shapiro M, Weeks SG, Litwin SE, Michaels AD. The associations between tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), ventricular dyssynchrony, and ventricular interaction in heart failure patients. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2008 Nov; 9(6):766-71. PMID: 18490286.
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    85. Abel ED, Litwin SE, Sweeney G. Cardiac remodeling in obesity. Physiol Rev. 2008 Apr; 88(2):389-419. PMID: 18391168.
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    86. Bray MS, Shaw CA, Moore MW, Garcia RA, Zanquetta MM, Durgan DJ, Jeong WJ, Tsai JY, Bugger H, Zhang D, Rohrwasser A, Rennison JH, Dyck JR, Litwin SE, Hardin PE, Chow CW, Chandler MP, Abel ED, Young ME. Disruption of the circadian clock within the cardiomyocyte influences myocardial contractile function, metabolism, and gene expression. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Feb; 294(2):H1036-47. PMID: 18156197.
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    87. Owan T, Litwin SE. Is there a cardiomyopathy of obesity? Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2007 Dec; 4(4):221-8. PMID: 18221619.
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    88. Edwards RL, Lyon T, Litwin SE, Rabovsky A, Symons JD, Jalili T. Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. J Nutr. 2007 Nov; 137(11):2405-11. PMID: 17951477.
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    89. Segerson NM, Litwin SE, Daccarett M, Wall TS, Hamdan MH, Lux RL. Scatter in repolarization timing predicts clinical events in post-myocardial infarction patients. Heart Rhythm. 2008 Feb; 5(2):208-14. PMID: 18242541.
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    90. O'Neill BT, Kim J, Wende AR, Theobald HA, Tuinei J, Buchanan J, Guo A, Zaha VG, Davis DK, Schell JC, Boudina S, Wayment B, Litwin SE, Shioi T, Izumo S, Birnbaum MJ, Abel ED. A conserved role for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase but not Akt signaling in mitochondrial adaptations that accompany physiological cardiac hypertrophy. Cell Metab. 2007 Oct; 6(4):294-306. PMID: 17908558.
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    91. Sena S, Rasmussen IR, Wende AR, McQueen AP, Theobald HA, Wilde N, Pereira RO, Litwin SE, Berger JP, Abel ED. Cardiac hypertrophy caused by peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor-gamma agonist treatment occurs independently of changes in myocardial insulin signaling. Endocrinology. 2007 Dec; 148(12):6047-53. PMID: 17823261.
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    92. Carlstrom J, Symons JD, Wu TC, Bruno RS, Litwin SE, Jalili T. A quercetin supplemented diet does not prevent cardiovascular complications in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr. 2007 Mar; 137(3):628-33. PMID: 17311951.
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    93. Avelar E, Cloward TV, Walker JM, Farney RJ, Strong M, Pendleton RC, Segerson N, Adams TD, Gress RE, Hunt SC, Litwin SE. Left ventricular hypertrophy in severe obesity: interactions among blood pressure, nocturnal hypoxemia, and body mass. Hypertension. 2007 Jan; 49(1):34-9. PMID: 17130310.
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    94. Valencik ML, Zhang D, Punske B, Hu P, McDonald JA, Litwin SE. Integrin activation in the heart: a link between electrical and contractile dysfunction? Circ Res. 2006 Dec 08; 99(12):1403-10. PMID: 17095723.
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    95. Lelliott CJ, Medina-Gomez G, Petrovic N, Kis A, Feldmann HM, Bjursell M, Parker N, Curtis K, Campbell M, Hu P, Zhang D, Litwin SE, Zaha VG, Fountain KT, Boudina S, Jimenez-Linan M, Blount M, Lopez M, Meirhaeghe A, Bohlooly-Y M, Storlien L, Strömstedt M, Snaith M, Oresic M, Abel ED, Cannon B, Vidal-Puig A. Ablation of PGC-1beta results in defective mitochondrial activity, thermogenesis, hepatic function, and cardiac performance. PLoS Biol. 2006 Nov; 4(11):e369. PMID: 17090215.
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    96. Jalili T, Carlstrom J, Kim S, Freeman D, Jin H, Wu TC, Litwin SE, David Symons J. Quercetin-supplemented diets lower blood pressure and attenuate cardiac hypertrophy in rats with aortic constriction. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006 Apr; 47(4):531-41. PMID: 16680066.
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    97. Litwin SE. "Ryanogate": who leaked the calcium? Circ Res. 2006 Feb 03; 98(2):165-8. PMID: 16456107.
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    98. Malan AK, Avelar E, Litwin SE, Hill HR, Litwin CM. Serological diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi: evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and an indirect immunofluorescent assay. J Med Microbiol. 2006 Feb; 55(Pt 2):171-8. PMID: 16434709.
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    99. Litwin SE. The growing problem of obesity and the heart: the plot "thickens". J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Feb 07; 47(3):617-9. PMID: 16458146.
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    100. McQueen AP, Zhang D, Hu P, Swenson L, Yang Y, Zaha VG, Hoffman JL, Yun UJ, Chakrabarti G, Wang Z, Albertine KH, Abel ED, Litwin SE. Contractile dysfunction in hypertrophied hearts with deficient insulin receptor signaling: possible role of reduced capillary density. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Dec; 39(6):882-92. PMID: 16216265.
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    101. Punske BB, Taccardi B, Steadman B, Ershler PR, England A, Valencik ML, McDonald JA, Litwin SE. Effect of fiber orientation on propagation: electrical mapping of genetically altered mouse hearts. J Electrocardiol. 2005 Oct; 38(4 Suppl):40-4. PMID: 16226072.
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    102. Adams TD, Avelar E, Cloward T, Crosby RD, Farney RJ, Gress R, Halverson RC, Hopkins PN, Kolotkin RL, Lamonte MJ, Litwin S, Nuttall RT, Pendleton R, Rosamond W, Simper SC, Smith SC, Strong M, Walker JM, Wiebke G, Yanowitz FG, Hunt SC. Design and rationale of the Utah obesity study. A study to assess morbidity following gastric bypass surgery. Contemp Clin Trials. 2005 Oct; 26(5):534-51. PMID: 16046191.
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    103. Buchanan J, Mazumder PK, Hu P, Chakrabarti G, Roberts MW, Yun UJ, Cooksey RC, Litwin SE, Abel ED. Reduced cardiac efficiency and altered substrate metabolism precedes the onset of hyperglycemia and contractile dysfunction in two mouse models of insulin resistance and obesity. Endocrinology. 2005 Dec; 146(12):5341-9. PMID: 16141388.
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    104. Skaluba SJ, Bray BE, Litwin SE. Close coupling of systolic and diastolic function: combined assessment provides superior prediction of exercise capacity. J Card Fail. 2005 Sep; 11(7):516-22. PMID: 16198247.
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    105. Avelar E, Jalili T, Dong L, Arvizo J, Hu P, Litwin SE, Mattson JP. PKC translocation and ERK1/2 activation in compensated right ventricular hypertrophy secondary to chronic emphysema. BMC Physiol. 2005 May 05; 5(1):6. PMID: 15876346.
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    106. Skaluba SJ, Litwin SE. Doppler-derived left ventricular filling pressures and the regulation of heart rate recovery after exercise in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 2005 Apr 01; 95(7):832-7. PMID: 15781010.
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    107. Skaluba SJ, Litwin SE. Mechanisms of exercise intolerance: insights from tissue Doppler imaging. Circulation. 2004 Mar 02; 109(8):972-7. PMID: 14967722.
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    108. Bull DA, Bailey SH, Rentz JJ, Zebrack JS, Lee M, Litwin SE, Kim SW. Effect of Terplex/VEGF-165 gene therapy on left ventricular function and structure following myocardial infarction. VEGF gene therapy for myocardial infarction. J Control Release. 2003 Dec 05; 93(2):175-81. PMID: 14636723.
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    109. Hu P, Zhang D, Swenson L, Chakrabarti G, Abel ED, Litwin SE. Minimally invasive aortic banding in mice: effects of altered cardiomyocyte insulin signaling during pressure overload. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Sep; 285(3):H1261-9. PMID: 12738623.
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    110. Litwin SE, Zhang D. Enhanced sodium-calcium exchange in the infarcted heart: effects on sarcoplasmic reticulum content and cellular contractility. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Nov; 976:446-53. PMID: 12502594.
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    111. Belke DD, Betuing S, Tuttle MJ, Graveleau C, Young ME, Pham M, Zhang D, Cooksey RC, McClain DA, Litwin SE, Taegtmeyer H, Severson D, Kahn CR, Abel ED. Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. J Clin Invest. 2002 Mar; 109(5):629-39. PMID: 11877471.
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    112. Zhu Y, Yamamoto T, Cullen J, Saputelli J, Aldrich CE, Miller DS, Litwin S, Furman PA, Jilbert AR, Mason WS. Kinetics of hepadnavirus loss from the liver during inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. J Virol. 2001 Jan; 75(1):311-22. PMID: 11119601.
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    113. Litwin SE, Zhang D, Bridge JH. Dyssynchronous Ca(2+) sparks in myocytes from infarcted hearts. Circ Res. 2000 Nov 24; 87(11):1040-7. PMID: 11090550.
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    114. Pennock GD, Spooner PH, Summers CE, Litwin SE. Prevention of abnormal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport and protein expression in post-infarction heart failure using 3, 5-diiodothyropropionic acid (DITPA). J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Nov; 32(11):1939-53. PMID: 11040100.
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    115. Litwin SE, Zhang D, Roberge P, Pennock GD. DITPA prevents the blunted contraction-frequency relationship in myocytes from infarcted hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Mar; 278(3):H862-70. PMID: 10710355.
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    116. Lombardi WL, Litwin SE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: congestive heart failure and beyond. Coron Artery Dis. 1999 Sep; 10(6):361-8. PMID: 10474785.
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    117. Litwin SE, Morgan JP. Effects of stimulation frequency on calcium transients in noninfarcted myocardium: modulation by chronic captopril treatment. J Card Fail. 1999 Sep; 5(3):224-35. PMID: 10496195.
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    118. Litwin SE, Katz SE, Morgan JP, Douglas PS. Effects of propranolol treatment on left ventricular function and intracellular calcium regulation in rats with postinfarction heart failure. Br J Pharmacol. 1999 Aug; 127(7):1671-9. PMID: 10455325.
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    119. Litwin SE, Katz SE, Litwin CM, Morgan JP, Douglas PS. Gender differences in postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Cardiology. 1999; 91(3):173-83. PMID: 10516411.
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    120. Skolnick RL, Litwin SE, Barry WH, Spitzer KW. Effect of ANG II on pHi, [Ca2+]i, and contraction in rabbit ventricular myocytes from infarcted hearts. Am J Physiol. 1998 11; 275(5):H1788-97. PMID: 9815087.
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    121. Litwin SE, Li J, Bridge JH. Na-Ca exchange and the trigger for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release: studies in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. Biophys J. 1998 Jul; 75(1):359-71. PMID: 9649393.
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    122. Litwin SE, Bridge JH. Enhanced Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in the infarcted heart. Implications for excitation-contraction coupling. Circ Res. 1997 Dec; 81(6):1083-93. PMID: 9400390.
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    123. Sprung RF, Cataldo RM, Gregory MC, Marks ML, Bull DA, Litwin SE. Ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. West J Med. 1996 Dec; 165(6):379-82. PMID: 9000864.
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    124. Litwin SE, Katz SE, Morgan JP, Douglas PS. Long-term captopril treatment improves diastolic filling more than systolic performance in rats with large myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Sep; 28(3):773-81. PMID: 8772771.
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    125. O'Dwyer PJ, Szarka CE, Yao KS, Halbherr TC, Pfeiffer GR, Green F, Gallo JM, Brennan J, Frucht H, Goosenberg EB, Hamilton TC, Litwin S, Balshem AM, Engstrom PF, Clapper ML. Modulation of gene expression in subjects at risk for colorectal cancer by the chemopreventive dithiolethione oltipraz. J Clin Invest. 1996 Sep 01; 98(5):1210-7. PMID: 8787684.
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    126. Levi AJ, Li J, Litwin SE, Spitzer KW. Effect of internal sodium and cellular calcium load on voltage-dependence of the Indo-1 transient in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 1996 Sep; 32(3):534-50. PMID: 8881514.
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    127. Litwin S, Kohmoto O, Levi AJ, Spitzer KW, Bridge JH. Evidence that reverse Na-Ca exchange can trigger SR calcium release. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Apr 15; 779:451-63. PMID: 8659861.
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    128. Langer CJ, Curran WJ, Keller SM, Catalano RB, Litwin S, Blankstein KB, Haas N, Campli SN, Comis RL. Long-term survival results for patients with locally advanced, initially unresectable non-small cell lung cancer treated with aggressive concurrent chemoradiation. Cancer J Sci Am. 1996 Mar-Apr; 2(2):99-105. PMID: 9166507.
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    129. Litwin SE, Vatner DE, Morgan JP. Inotropic effects of alpha 1-adrenergic agonists in myocardium from rats with postinfarction heart failure. Am J Physiol. 1995 Nov; 269(5 Pt 2):H1553-63. PMID: 7503248.
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    130. Langer CJ, Leighton JC, Comis RL, O'Dwyer PJ, McAleer CA, Bonjo CA, Engstrom PF, Litwin S, Johnson S, Ozols RF. Paclitaxel by 24- or 1-hour infusion n combination with carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: the Fox Chase Cancer Center experience. Semin Oncol. 1995 Aug; 22(4 Suppl 9):18-29. PMID: 7544025.
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    131. Ballard RB, Hoffman JP, Guttman MC, Barber L, Litwin S. How accurate is size measurement of pancreas cancer masses by computed axial tomography (CT) scanning? Am Surg. 1995 Aug; 61(8):686-91. PMID: 7618807.
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    132. Litwin SE, Katz SE, Weinberg EO, Lorell BH, Aurigemma GP, Douglas PS. Serial echocardiographic-Doppler assessment of left ventricular geometry and function in rats with pressure-overload hypertrophy. Chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition attenuates the transition to heart failure. Circulation. 1995 May 15; 91(10):2642-54. PMID: 7743628.
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    133. Bing OH, Brooks WW, Robinson KG, Slawsky MT, Hayes JA, Litwin SE, Sen S, Conrad CH. The spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of the transition from compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1995 Jan; 27(1):383-96. PMID: 7760360.
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    134. Hoffman JP, Weese JL, Solin LJ, Engstrom P, Agarwal P, Barber LW, Guttmann MC, Litwin S, Salazar H, Eisenberg BL. A pilot study of preoperative chemoradiation for patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Am J Surg. 1995 Jan; 169(1):71-7; discussion 77-8. PMID: 7818001.
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    135. Brooks WW, Bing OH, Litwin SE, Conrad CH, Morgan JP. Effects of treppe and calcium on intracellular calcium and function in the failing heart from the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Hypertension. 1994 Sep; 24(3):347-56. PMID: 8082941.
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    136. Weinberg EO, Schoen FJ, George D, Kagaya Y, Douglas PS, Litwin SE, Schunkert H, Benedict CR, Lorell BH. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prolongs survival and modifies the transition to heart failure in rats with pressure overload hypertrophy due to ascending aortic stenosis. Circulation. 1994 Sep; 90(3):1410-22. PMID: 8087951.
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    137. Manning WJ, Wei JY, Katz SE, Litwin SE, Douglas PS. In vivo assessment of LV mass in mice using high-frequency cardiac ultrasound: necropsy validation. Am J Physiol. 1994 Apr; 266(4 Pt 2):H1672-5. PMID: 8184946.
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    138. Litwin SE, Katz SE, Morgan JP, Douglas PS. Serial echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular geometry and function after large myocardial infarction in the rat. Circulation. 1994 Jan; 89(1):345-54. PMID: 8281668.
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    139. Litwin SE, Grossman W. Diastolic dysfunction as a cause of heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Oct; 22(4 Suppl A):49A-55A. PMID: 8376697.
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    140. Perreault CL, Gonzalez-Serratos H, Litwin SE, Sun X, Franzini-Armstrong C, Morgan JP. Alterations in contractility and intracellular Ca2+ transients in isolated bundles of skeletal muscle fibers from rats with chronic heart failure. Circ Res. 1993 Aug; 73(2):405-12. PMID: 8330383.
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    141. Schunkert H, Tang SS, Litwin SE, Diamant D, Riegger G, Dzau VJ, Ingelfinger JR. Regulation of intrarenal and circulating renin-angiotensin systems in severe heart failure in the rat. Cardiovasc Res. 1993 May; 27(5):731-5. PMID: 8348571.
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    142. Litwin SE, Morgan JP. Captopril enhances intracellular calcium handling and beta-adrenergic responsiveness of myocardium from rats with postinfarction failure. Circ Res. 1992 Oct; 71(4):797-807. PMID: 1325296.
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    143. Schunkert H, Ingelfinger JR, Hirsch AT, Tang SS, Litwin SE, Talsness CE, Dzau VJ. Evidence for tissue-specific activation of renal angiotensinogen mRNA expression in chronic stable experimental heart failure. J Clin Invest. 1992 Oct; 90(4):1523-9. PMID: 1401084.
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    144. Litwin SE, Raya TE, Warner A, Litwin CM, Goldman S. Effects of captopril on contractility after myocardial infarction: experimental observations. Am J Cardiol. 1991 Nov 18; 68(14):26D-34D. PMID: 1746417.
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    145. Litwin SE, Raya TE, Anderson PG, Litwin CM, Bressler R, Goldman S. Induction of myocardial hypertrophy after coronary ligation in rats decreases ventricular dilatation and improves systolic function. Circulation. 1991 Oct; 84(4):1819-27. PMID: 1833090.
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    146. Litwin SE, Raya TE, Daugherty S, Goldman S. Peripheral circulatory control of cardiac output in diabetic rats. Am J Physiol. 1991 Sep; 261(3 Pt 2):H836-42. PMID: 1887928.
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    147. Litwin SE, Litwin CM, Raya TE, Warner AL, Goldman S. Contractility and stiffness of noninfarcted myocardium after coronary ligation in rats. Effects of chronic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Circulation. 1991 Mar; 83(3):1028-37. PMID: 1999008.
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    148. Litwin SE, Raya TE, Anderson PG, Daugherty S, Goldman S. Abnormal cardiac function in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Changes in active and passive properties of the left ventricle. J Clin Invest. 1990 Aug; 86(2):481-8. PMID: 2200804.
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    149. Litwin SE, Raya TE, Gay RG, Bedotto JB, Bahl JJ, Anderson PG, Goldman S, Bressler R. Chronic inhibition of fatty acid oxidation: new model of diastolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol. 1990 Jan; 258(1 Pt 2):H51-6. PMID: 2137299.
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    150. Litwin SE, Gorman G, Huang SK. Effects of different pacing modes on left ventricular relaxation in closed-chest dogs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1989 Jul; 12(7 Pt 1):1070-6. PMID: 2476743.
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