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Roger R. Markwald

Title
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentRegenerative Medicine and Cell Biology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 508
CRI 613
Children's Research Inst. - 173 Ashley Ave.
Phone843-792-1341
Fax843-792-0664
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    Collapse Overview 
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    My laboratory has pursued studies on the cell and molecular mechanisms of heart development that utilized in vivo dynamic labeling studies to demonstrate that heart development is progressive, irreversible and occurs by the addition of new segments including ones derived from extracardiac sources. Three dimensional culture assays were also developed that faithfully recapitulated in vivo morphogenetic processes which permitted identification of: (1) a novel heart forming field that gave origin to the outflow track at the arterial pole of the heart (, (2) specific growth factors of the TGFß supergene as inducers of the outflow track and the transformation of specific populations of endothelial cells into multiple progenitor cells of internal partitions that divide the heart into right and left sides a and their respective valves and (3) specific matricellular proteins (periostin and CCN1,2) as ligands that activate integrin-linked, nodal intracellular kinase pathways in valvuloseptal progenitor cells that promote their differentiation into fibroblasts and regulate cytoskeletal changes that promote their remodeling into sculpted leaflets. Modifications of the culture system have also permitted the functional assessment of the viscoelastic properties of developing valves and the role of biomechanical signaling in cardiac cell and matrix differentiation.

    Current studies focus on using patient based, gene discoveries for developing remedial etiologies and therapies for congenital heart malformations and developmentally-linked, adult heart valve diseases. We are also exploring the use of bone marrow derived, hematopoietic stem cells as carriers of genetic “payloads” to normalize or restore the function of degenerative heart valve diseases or to re-engineer cardiac fibrotic tissues like infarct scars to benefit patient health following cardiac injury. Lastly, we are applying and integrating bioprinting technology and principles of developmental biology to engineer complex micro-organs for use as personalized tissue replacements or to study mechanisms of human diseases. Our spheroidal approach to bioprinting tissues is shown in the figure below. Spheroids called “bioink” are formulated from stem cells and hydrogels containing inductive signals and linkers - are robotically positioned and assembled into 3D structures such as the tubular (vascular-like) structure shown. Details of the process are described in a video paper Grace et al. 2015

    Video link


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Toomer KA, Yu M, Fulmer D, Guo L, Moore KS, Moore R, Drayton KD, Glover J, Peterson N, Ramos-Ortiz S, Drohan A, Catching BJ, Stairley R, Wessels A, Lipschutz JH, Delling FN, Jeunemaitre X, Dina C, Collins RL, Brand H, Talkowski ME, Del Monte F, Mukherjee R, Awgulewitsch A, Body S, Hardiman G, Hazard ES, da Silveira WA, Wang B, Leyne M, Durst R, Markwald RR, Le Scouarnec S, Hagege A, Le Tourneau T, Kohl P, Rog-Zielinska EA, Ellinor PT, Levine RA, Milan DJ, Schott JJ, Bouatia-Naji N, Slaugenhaupt SA, Norris RA. Primary cilia defects causing mitral valve prolapse. Sci Transl Med. 2019 May 22; 11(493). PMID: 31118289.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Neri T, Hiriart E, van Vliet PP, Faure E, Norris RA, Farhat B, Jagla B, Lefrancois J, Sugi Y, Moore-Morris T, Zaffran S, Faustino RS, Zambon AC, Desvignes JP, Salgado D, Levine RA, de la Pompa JL, Terzic A, Evans SM, Markwald R, Pucéat M. Human pre-valvular endocardial cells derived from pluripotent stem cells recapitulate cardiac pathophysiological valvulogenesis. Nat Commun. 2019 04 26; 10(1):1929. PMID: 31028265.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ghatak S, Misra S, Moreno-Rodrigue RA, Hascall VC, Leone GW, Markwald RR. Periostin/ß1integrin interaction regulates p21-activated kinases in valvular interstitial cell survival and in actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2019 May; 1863(5):813-829. PMID: 30742951.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Markwald RR, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Ghatak S, Misra S, Norris RA, Sugi Y. Role of Periostin in Cardiac Valve Development. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019; 1132:177-191. PMID: 31037635.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Le Tourneau T, Le Scouarnec S, Cueff C, Bernstein D, Aalberts JJJ, Lecointe S, Mérot J, Bernstein JA, Oomen T, Dina C, Karakachoff M, Desal H, Al Habash O, Delling FN, Capoulade R, Suurmeijer AJH, Milan D, Norris RA, Markwald R, Aikawa E, Slaugenhaupt SA, Jeunemaitre X, Hagège A, Roussel JC, Trochu JN, Levine RA, Kyndt F, Probst V, Le Marec H, Schott JJ. New insights into mitral valve dystrophy: a Filamin-A genotype-phenotype and outcome study. Eur Heart J. 2018 Apr 14; 39(15):1269-1277. PMID: 29020406.
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    6. Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Krug EL, Reyes L, Markwald RR. Linear array of multi-substrate tracts for simultaneous assessment of cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation. Biotechniques. 2017 12 01; 63(6):267-274. PMID: 29235973.
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    7. Ghatak S, Hascall VC, Markwald RR, Feghali-Bostwick C, Artlett CM, Gooz M, Bogatkevich GS, Atanelishvili I, Silver RM, Wood J, Thannickal VJ, Misra S. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1)-induced CD44V6-NOX4 signaling in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2017 06 23; 292(25):10490-10519. PMID: 28389561.
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    8. Ghatak S, Markwald RR, Hascall VC, Dowling W, Lottes RG, Baatz JE, Beeson G, Beeson CC, Perrella MA, Thannickal VJ, Misra S. Transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1) regulates CD44V6 expression and activity through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-induced EGR1 in pulmonary fibrogenic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2017 06 23; 292(25):10465-10489. PMID: 28389562.
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    9. Richards D, Jia J, Yost M, Markwald R, Mei Y. 3D Bioprinting for Vascularized Tissue Fabrication. Ann Biomed Eng. 2017 01; 45(1):132-147. PMID: 27230253.
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    10. Yang H, Schmidt LP, Wang Z, Yang X, Shao Y, Borg TK, Markwald R, Runyan R, Gao BZ. Dynamic Myofibrillar Remodeling in Live Cardiomyocytes under Static Stretch. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 10; 6:20674. PMID: 26861590.
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    11. Yang H, Borg TK, Ma Z, Xu M, Wetzel G, Saraf LV, Markwald R, Runyan RB, Gao BZ. Biochip-based study of unidirectional mitochondrial transfer from stem cells to myocytes via tunneling nanotubes. Biofabrication. 2016 Feb 04; 8(1):015012. PMID: 26844857.
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    12. Rog-Zielinska EA, Norris RA, Kohl P, Markwald R. The Living Scar--Cardiac Fibroblasts and the Injured Heart. Trends Mol Med. 2016 Feb; 22(2):99-114. PMID: 26776094.
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    13. Levine RA, Hagége AA, Judge DP, Padala M, Dal-Bianco JP, Aikawa E, Beaudoin J, Bischoff J, Bouatia-Naji N, Bruneval P, Butcher JT, Carpentier A, Chaput M, Chester AH, Clusel C, Delling FN, Dietz HC, Dina C, Durst R, Fernandez-Friera L, Handschumacher MD, Jensen MO, Jeunemaitre XP, Le Marec H, Le Tourneau T, Markwald RR, Mérot J, Messas E, Milan DP, Neri T, Norris RA, Peal D, Perrocheau M, Probst V, Pucéat M, Rosenthal N, Solis J, Schott JJ, Schwammenthal E, Slaugenhaupt SA, Song JK, Yacoub MH. Mitral valve disease--morphology and mechanisms. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2015 Dec; 12(12):689-710. PMID: 26483167.
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    14. Dennis SG, Trusk T, Richards D, Jia J, Tan Y, Mei Y, Fann S, Markwald R, Yost M. Viability of Bioprinted Cellular Constructs Using a Three Dispenser Cartesian Printer. J Vis Exp. 2015 Sep 22; (103). PMID: 26436877.
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    15. Ghatak S, Maytin EV, Mack JA, Hascall VC, Atanelishvili I, Moreno Rodriguez R, Markwald RR, Misra S. Roles of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans in Wound Healing and Fibrosis. Int J Cell Biol. 2015; 2015:834893. PMID: 26448760.
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    16. Misra S, Hascall VC, Atanelishvili I, Moreno Rodriguez R, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Utilization of Glycosaminoglycans/Proteoglycans as Carriers for Targeted Therapy Delivery. Int J Cell Biol. 2015; 2015:537560. PMID: 26448753.
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    17. Duval D, Labbé P, Bureau L, Le Tourneau T, Norris RA, Markwald RR, Levine R, Schott JJ, Mérot J. MVP-Associated Filamin A Mutations Affect FlnA-PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) Interactions. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2015 Sep 08; 2(3):233-247. PMID: 26594644.
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    18. Dina C, Bouatia-Naji N, Tucker N, Delling FN, Toomer K, Durst R, Perrocheau M, Fernandez-Friera L, Solis J. Genetic association analyses highlight biological pathways underlying mitral valve prolapse. Nat Genet. 2015 Oct; 47(10):1206-11. PMID: 26301497.
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    19. Durst R, Sauls K, Peal DS, deVlaming A, Toomer K, Leyne M, Salani M, Talkowski ME, Brand H, Perrocheau M, Simpson C, Jett C, Stone MR, Charles F, Chiang C, Lynch SN, Bouatia-Naji N, Delling FN, Freed LA, Tribouilloy C, Le Tourneau T, LeMarec H, Fernandez-Friera L, Solis J, Trujillano D, Ossowski S, Estivill X, Dina C, Bruneval P, Chester A, Schott JJ, Irvine KD, Mao Y, Wessels A, Motiwala T, Puceat M, Tsukasaki Y, Menick DR, Kasiganesan H, Nie X, Broome AM, Williams K, Johnson A, Markwald RR, Jeunemaitre X, Hagege A, Levine RA, Milan DJ, Norris RA, Slaugenhaupt SA. Mutations in DCHS1 cause mitral valve prolapse. Nature. 2015 Sep 03; 525(7567):109-13. PMID: 26258302.
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    20. Sauls K, Toomer K, Williams K, Johnson AJ, Markwald RR, Hajdu Z, Norris RA. Increased Infiltration of Extra-Cardiac Cells in Myxomatous Valve Disease. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2015 Sep; 2(3):200-213. PMID: 26473162.
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    21. Misra S, Hascall VC, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Interactions between Hyaluronan and Its Receptors (CD44, RHAMM) Regulate the Activities of Inflammation and Cancer. Front Immunol. 2015; 6:201. PMID: 25999946.
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    22. Judge DP, Neamatalla H, Norris RA, Levine RA, Butcher JT, Vignier N, Kang KH, Nguyen Q, Bruneval P, Perier MC, Messas E, Jeunemaitre X, de Vlaming A, Markwald R, Carrier L, Hagège AA. Targeted Mybpc3 Knock-Out Mice with Cardiac Hypertrophy Exhibit Structural Mitral Valve Abnormalities. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2015; 2(2):48-65. PMID: 26819945.
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    23. Misra S, Ghatak S, Vyas A, O'Brien P, Markwald RR, Khetmalas M, Hascall VC, McCarthy JB, Karamanos NK, Tammi MI, Tammi RH, Prestwitch GD, Padhye S. Isothiocyanate analogs targeting CD44 receptor as an effective strategy against colon cancer. Med Chem Res. 2014 Aug 01; 23(8):3836-3851. PMID: 25013352.
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    24. Xu C, Zhang M, Huang Y, Ogale A, Fu J, Markwald RR. Study of droplet formation process during drop-on-demand inkjetting of living cell-laden bioink. Langmuir. 2014 Aug 05; 30(30):9130-8. PMID: 25005170.
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    25. Jia J, Richards DJ, Pollard S, Tan Y, Rodriguez J, Visconti RP, Trusk TC, Yost MJ, Yao H, Markwald RR, Mei Y. Engineering alginate as bioink for bioprinting. Acta Biomater. 2014 Oct; 10(10):4323-31. PMID: 24998183.
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    26. Tan Y, Richards DJ, Trusk TC, Visconti RP, Yost MJ, Kindy MS, Drake CJ, Argraves WS, Markwald RR, Mei Y. 3D printing facilitated scaffold-free tissue unit fabrication. Biofabrication. 2014 Jun; 6(2):024111. PMID: 24717646.
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    27. Ghatak S, Misra S, Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Hoffman S, Levine RA, Hascall VC, Markwald RR. Periostin induces intracellular cross-talk between kinases and hyaluronan in atrioventricular valvulogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 21; 289(12):8545-61. PMID: 24469446.
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    28. Ghatak S, Bogatkevich GS, Atnelishvili I, Akter T, Feghali-Bostwick C, Hoffman S, Fresco VM, Fuchs JC, Visconti RP, Markwald RR, Padhye SB, Silver RM, Hascall VC, Misra S. Overexpression of c-Met and CD44v6 receptors contributes to autocrine TGF-ß1 signaling in interstitial lung disease. J Biol Chem. 2014 Mar 14; 289(11):7856-72. PMID: 24324260.
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    29. Ghatak S, Vyas A, Misra S, O'Brien P, Zambre A, Fresco VM, Markwald RR, Swamy KV, Afrasiabi Z, Choudhury A, Khetmalas M, Padhye S. Novel di-tertiary-butyl phenylhydrazones as dual cyclooxygenase-2/5-lipoxygenase inhibitors: synthesis, COX/LOX inhibition, molecular modeling, and insights into their cytotoxicities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Jan 01; 24(1):317-24. PMID: 24295787.
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    30. Duval D, Lardeux A, Le Tourneau T, Norris RA, Markwald RR, Sauzeau V, Probst V, Le Marec H, Levine R, Schott JJ, Merot J. Valvular dystrophy associated filamin A mutations reveal a new role of its first repeats in small-GTPase regulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Feb; 1843(2):234-44. PMID: 24200678.
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    31. Conway SJ, Izuhara K, Kudo Y, Litvin J, Markwald R, Ouyang G, Arron JR, Holweg CT, Kudo A. The role of periostin in tissue remodeling across health and disease. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014 Apr; 71(7):1279-88. PMID: 24146092.
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    32. Twal WO, Klatt SC, Harikrishnan K, Gerges E, Cooley MA, Trusk TC, Zhou B, Gabr MG, Shazly T, Lessner SM, Markwald RR, Argraves WS. Cellularized microcarriers as adhesive building blocks for fabrication of tubular tissue constructs. Ann Biomed Eng. 2014 Jul; 42(7):1470-81. PMID: 23943070.
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    33. Kolpa HJ, Peal DS, Lynch SN, Giokas AC, Ghatak S, Misra S, Norris RA, Macrae CA, Markwald RR, Ellinor P, Bischoff J, Milan DJ. miR-21 represses Pdcd4 during cardiac valvulogenesis. Development. 2013 May; 140(10):2172-80. PMID: 23578931.
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    34. Wang W, Leigh Herran C, Coutris N, Huang Y, Mironov V, Markwald R. Methodology for the Evaluation of Double-Layered Microcapsule Formability Zone in Compound Nozzle Jetting Based on Growth Rate Ratio. J Fluids Eng. 2013 May; 135(5):510011-510018. PMID: 23904666.
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    35. Ma Z, Yang H, Liu H, Xu M, Runyan RB, Eisenberg CA, Markwald RR, Borg TK, Gao BZ. Mesenchymal stem cell-cardiomyocyte interactions under defined contact modes on laser-patterned biochips. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56554. PMID: 23418583.
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    36. Ma Z, Liu Q, Yang H, Runyan RB, Eisenberg CA, Xu M, Borg TK, Markwald R, Wang Y, Gao BZ. Laser patterning for the study of MSC cardiogenic differentiation at the single-cell level. Light Sci Appl. 2013; 2. PMID: 24527266.
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    37. Wu B, Zhang Z, Lui W, Chen X, Wang Y, Chamberlain AA, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Markwald RR, O'Rourke BP, Sharp DJ, Zheng D, Lenz J, Baldwin HS, Chang CP, Zhou B. Endocardial cells form the coronary arteries by angiogenesis through myocardial-endocardial VEGF signaling. Cell. 2012 Nov 21; 151(5):1083-96. PMID: 23178125.
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    38. Liu H, Shao Y, Qin W, Runyan RB, Xu M, Ma Z, Borg TK, Markwald R, Gao BZ. Myosin filament assembly onto myofibrils in live neonatal cardiomyocytes observed by TPEF-SHG microscopy. Cardiovasc Res. 2013 Feb 01; 97(2):262-70. PMID: 23118131.
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    39. Ma Z, Liu Q, Liu H, Yang H, Yun JX, Xu M, Eisenberg CA, Borg TK, Markwald R, Gao BZ. Cardiogenic Regulation of Stem-Cell Electrical Properties in a Laser-Patterned Biochip. Cell Mol Bioeng. 2012 Sep 01; 5(3):327-336. PMID: 23139730.
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    40. Sauls K, de Vlaming A, Harris BS, Williams K, Wessels A, Levine RA, Slaugenhaupt SA, Goodwin RL, Pavone LM, Merot J, Schott JJ, Le Tourneau T, Dix T, Jesinkey S, Feng Y, Walsh C, Zhou B, Baldwin S, Markwald RR, Norris RA. Developmental basis for filamin-A-associated myxomatous mitral valve disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2012 Oct 01; 96(1):109-19. PMID: 22843703.
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    41. Xu C, Chai W, Huang Y, Markwald RR. Scaffold-free inkjet printing of three-dimensional zigzag cellular tubes. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2012 Dec; 109(12):3152-60. PMID: 22767299.
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    42. de Vlaming A, Sauls K, Hajdu Z, Visconti RP, Mehesz AN, Levine RA, Slaugenhaupt SA, Hagège A, Chester AH, Markwald RR, Norris RA. Atrioventricular valve development: new perspectives on an old theme. Differentiation. 2012 Jul; 84(1):103-16. PMID: 22579502.
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    43. Sugi Y, Kern MJ, Markwald RR, Burnside JL. Periostin Expression is Altered in Aortic Valves in Smad6 Mutant Mice. J Neonatal Biol. 2012 Jan 21; 1. PMID: 25383261.
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    44. Little TS, Mironov V, Nagy Mehesz A, Markwald R, Sugi Y, Lessner SM, Sutton MA, Liu X, Wang Q, Yang X, Blancette JO, Skiles M. Engineering a 3D, biological construct: representative research in the South Carolina Project for Organ Biofabrication. Biofabrication. 2011 Sep; 3(3):030202. PMID: 21926458.
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    45. Judge DP, Markwald RR, Hagège AA, Levine RA. Translational research on the mitral valve: from developmental mechanisms to new therapies. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011 Dec; 4(6):699-701. PMID: 21901526.
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    46. Hajdu Z, Romeo SJ, Fleming PA, Markwald RR, Visconti RP, Drake CJ. Recruitment of bone marrow-derived valve interstitial cells is a normal homeostatic process. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Dec; 51(6):955-65. PMID: 21871458.
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    47. Hahurij ND, Kolditz DP, Bökenkamp R, Markwald RR, Schalij MJ, Poelmann RE, Gittenberger-De Groot AC, Blom NA. Accessory atrioventricular myocardial pathways in mouse heart development: substrate for supraventricular tachycardias. Pediatr Res. 2011 Jul; 70(1):37-43. PMID: 21399557.
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    48. Wang R, Yun JX, Yuan X, Goodwin R, Markwald RR, Gao BZ. Megahertz streak-mode Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. J Biomed Opt. 2011 Jun; 16(6):066016. PMID: 21721817.
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    49. Mehesz AN, Brown J, Hajdu Z, Beaver W, da Silva JV, Visconti RP, Markwald RR, Mironov V. Scalable robotic biofabrication of tissue spheroids. Biofabrication. 2011 Jun; 3(2):025002. PMID: 21562365.
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    50. Misra S, Heldin P, Hascall VC, Karamanos NK, Skandalis SS, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Hyaluronan-CD44 interactions as potential targets for cancer therapy. FEBS J. 2011 May; 278(9):1429-43. PMID: 21362138.
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    51. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Markwald RR. Organ printing: from bioprinter to organ biofabrication line. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2011 Oct; 22(5):667-73. PMID: 21419621.
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    52. Hajdu Z, Mironov V, Mehesz AN, Norris RA, Markwald RR, Visconti RP. Tissue spheroid fusion-based in vitro screening assays for analysis of tissue maturation. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2010 Dec; 4(8):659-64. PMID: 20603872.
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    53. Teekakirikul P, Eminaga S, Toka O, Alcalai R, Wang L, Wakimoto H, Nayor M, Konno T, Gorham JM, Wolf CM, Kim JB, Schmitt JP, Molkentin JD, Norris RA, Tager AM, Hoffman SR, Markwald RR, Seidman CE, Seidman JG. Cardiac fibrosis in mice with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is mediated by non-myocyte proliferation and requires Tgf-ß. J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct; 120(10):3520-9. PMID: 20811150.
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    54. Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Wessels A, Merot J, Bruneval P, Chester AH, Yacoub MH, Hagège A, Slaugenhaupt SA, Aikawa E, Schott JJ, Lardeux A, Harris BS, Williams LK, Richards A, Levine RA, Markwald RR. Expression of the familial cardiac valvular dystrophy gene, filamin-A, during heart morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2010 Jul; 239(7):2118-27. PMID: 20549728.
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    55. Ghatak S, Hascall VC, Markwald RR, Misra S. Stromal hyaluronan interaction with epithelial CD44 variants promotes prostate cancer invasiveness by augmenting expression and function of hepatocyte growth factor and androgen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010 Jun 25; 285(26):19821-32. PMID: 20200161.
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    56. Visconti RP, Kasyanov V, Gentile C, Zhang J, Markwald RR, Mironov V. Towards organ printing: engineering an intra-organ branched vascular tree. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2010 Mar; 10(3):409-20. PMID: 20132061.
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    57. Markwald RR, Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Levine RA. Developmental basis of adult cardiovascular diseases: valvular heart diseases. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Feb; 1188:177-83. PMID: 20201901.
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    58. Neagu A, Mironov V, Kosztin I, Barz B, Neagu M, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Markwald RR, Forgacs G. Computational modeling of epithelial-mesenchymal transformations. Biosystems. 2010 Apr; 100(1):23-30. PMID: 20005917.
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    59. Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Hoffman S, Markwald RR. The many facets of the matricelluar protein periostin during cardiac development, remodeling, and pathophysiology. J Cell Commun Signal. 2009 Dec; 3(3-4):275-86. PMID: 19798597.
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    60. Tkatchenko TV, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Conway SJ, Molkentin JD, Markwald RR, Tkatchenko AV. Lack of periostin leads to suppression of Notch1 signaling and calcific aortic valve disease. Physiol Genomics. 2009 Nov 06; 39(3):160-8. PMID: 19723774.
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    61. Li G, Jin R, Norris RA, Zhang L, Yu S, Wu F, Markwald RR, Nanda A, Conway SJ, Smyth SS, Granger DN. Periostin mediates vascular smooth muscle cell migration through the integrins alphavbeta3 and alphavbeta5 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Feb; 208(2):358-65. PMID: 19695571.
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    62. Mironov V, Trusk T, Kasyanov V, Little S, Swaja R, Markwald R. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm. Biofabrication. 2009 Jun; 1(2):022001. PMID: 20811099.
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    63. Norris RA, Potts JD, Yost MJ, Junor L, Brooks T, Tan H, Hoffman S, Hart MM, Kern MJ, Damon B, Markwald RR, Goodwin RL. Periostin promotes a fibroblastic lineage pathway in atrioventricular valve progenitor cells. Dev Dyn. 2009 May; 238(5):1052-63. PMID: 19334280.
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    64. Misra S, Hascall VC, De Giovanni C, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Delivery of CD44 shRNA/nanoparticles within cancer cells: perturbation of hyaluronan/CD44v6 interactions and reduction in adenoma growth in Apc Min/+ MICE. J Biol Chem. 2009 May 01; 284(18):12432-46. PMID: 19246453.
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    65. Mironov V, Visconti RP, Kasyanov V, Forgacs G, Drake CJ, Markwald RR. Organ printing: tissue spheroids as building blocks. Biomaterials. 2009 Apr; 30(12):2164-74. PMID: 19176247.
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    66. Kasyanov VA, Hodde J, Hiles MC, Eisenberg C, Eisenberg L, De Castro LE, Ozolanta I, Murovska M, Draughn RA, Prestwich GD, Markwald RR, Mironov V. Rapid biofabrication of tubular tissue constructs by centrifugal casting in a decellularized natural scaffold with laser-machined micropores. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2009 Jan; 20(1):329-37. PMID: 18807150.
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    67. Jakab K, Damon B, Marga F, Doaga O, Mironov V, Kosztin I, Markwald R, Forgacs G. Relating cell and tissue mechanics: implications and applications. Dev Dyn. 2008 Sep; 237(9):2438-49. PMID: 18729216.
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    68. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Markwald RR. Nanotechnology in vascular tissue engineering: from nanoscaffolding towards rapid vessel biofabrication. Trends Biotechnol. 2008 Jun; 26(6):338-44. PMID: 18423666.
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    69. Kolditz DP, Wijffels MC, Blom NA, van der Laarse A, Hahurij ND, Lie-Venema H, Markwald RR, Poelmann RE, Schalij MJ, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Epicardium-derived cells in development of annulus fibrosis and persistence of accessory pathways. Circulation. 2008 Mar 25; 117(12):1508-17. PMID: 18332266.
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    70. Misra S, Obeid LM, Hannun YA, Minamisawa S, Berger FG, Markwald RR, Toole BP, Ghatak S. Hyaluronan constitutively regulates activation of COX-2-mediated cell survival activity in intestinal epithelial and colon carcinoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2008 May 23; 283(21):14335-44. PMID: 18326857.
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    71. Norris RA, Borg TK, Butcher JT, Baudino TA, Banerjee I, Markwald RR. Neonatal and adult cardiovascular pathophysiological remodeling and repair: developmental role of periostin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Mar; 1123:30-40. PMID: 18375575.
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    72. Jakab K, Norotte C, Damon B, Marga F, Neagu A, Besch-Williford CL, Kachurin A, Church KH, Park H, Mironov V, Markwald R, Vunjak-Novakovic G, Forgacs G. Tissue engineering by self-assembly of cells printed into topologically defined structures. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008 Mar; 14(3):413-21. PMID: 18333793.
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    73. Snider P, Hinton RB, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Wang J, Rogers R, Lindsley A, Li F, Ingram DA, Menick D, Field L, Firulli AB, Molkentin JD, Markwald R, Conway SJ. Periostin is required for maturation and extracellular matrix stabilization of noncardiomyocyte lineages of the heart. Circ Res. 2008 Apr 11; 102(7):752-60. PMID: 18296617.
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    74. Lie-Venema H, Eralp I, Markwald RR, van den Akker NM, Wijffels MC, Kolditz DP, van der Laarse A, Schalij MJ, Poelmann RE, Bogers AJ, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Periostin expression by epicardium-derived cells is involved in the development of the atrioventricular valves and fibrous heart skeleton. Differentiation. 2008 Sep; 76(7):809-19. PMID: 18294225.
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    75. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Markwald RR, Prestwich GD. Bioreactor-free tissue engineering: directed tissue assembly by centrifugal casting. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008 Feb; 8(2):143-52. PMID: 18194071.
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    76. Norris RA, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Sugi Y, Hoffman S, Amos J, Hart MM, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Markwald RR. Periostin regulates atrioventricular valve maturation. Dev Biol. 2008 Apr 15; 316(2):200-13. PMID: 18313657.
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    77. Misra S, Hascall VC, Berger FG, Markwald RR, Ghatak S. Hyaluronan, CD44, and cyclooxygenase-2 in colon cancer. Connect Tissue Res. 2008; 49(3):219-24. PMID: 18661347.
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    78. Ghatak S, Hascall VC, Berger FG, Penas MM, Davis C, Jabari E, He X, Norris JS, Dang Y, Markwald RR, Misra S. Tissue-specific shRNA delivery: a novel approach for gene therapy in cancer. Connect Tissue Res. 2008; 49(3):265-9. PMID: 18661357.
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    79. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Drake C, Markwald RR. Organ printing: promises and challenges. Regen Med. 2008 Jan; 3(1):93-103. PMID: 18154465.
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    80. Inai K, Norris RA, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Sugi Y. BMP-2 induces cell migration and periostin expression during atrioventricular valvulogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008 Mar 15; 315(2):383-96. PMID: 18261719.
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    81. Butcher JT, Markwald RR. Valvulogenesis: the moving target. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2007 Aug 29; 362(1484):1489-503. PMID: 17569640.
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    82. Borg TK, Markwald R. Periostin: more than just an adhesion molecule. Circ Res. 2007 Aug 03; 101(3):230-1. PMID: 17673682.
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    83. Norris RA, Damon B, Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Ramamurthi A, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Trusk T, Potts JD, Goodwin RL, Davis J, Hoffman S, Wen X, Sugi Y, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Turner DK, Oka T, Conway SJ, Molkentin JD, Forgacs G, Markwald RR. Periostin regulates collagen fibrillogenesis and the biomechanical properties of connective tissues. J Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun 01; 101(3):695-711. PMID: 17226767.
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    84. Butcher JT, McQuinn TC, Sedmera D, Turner D, Markwald RR. Transitions in early embryonic atrioventricular valvular function correspond with changes in cushion biomechanics that are predictable by tissue composition. Circ Res. 2007 May 25; 100(10):1503-11. PMID: 17478728.
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    85. Okagawa H, Markwald RR, Sugi Y. Functional BMP receptor in endocardial cells is required in atrioventricular cushion mesenchymal cell formation in chick. Dev Biol. 2007 Jun 01; 306(1):179-92. PMID: 17449024.
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    86. Butcher JT, Sedmera D, Guldberg RE, Markwald RR. Quantitative volumetric analysis of cardiac morphogenesis assessed through micro-computed tomography. Dev Dyn. 2007 Mar; 236(3):802-9. PMID: 17013892.
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    87. Kern CB, Norris RA, Thompson RP, Argraves WS, Fairey SE, Reyes L, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Versican proteolysis mediates myocardial regression during outflow tract development. Dev Dyn. 2007 Mar; 236(3):671-83. PMID: 17226818.
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    88. Markwald RR, Butcher JT. The next frontier in cardiovascular developmental biology--an integrated approach to adult disease? Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med. 2007 Feb; 4(2):60-1. PMID: 17245398.
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    89. Kolditz DP, Wijffels MC, Blom NA, van der Laarse A, Markwald RR, Schalij MJ, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Persistence of functional atrioventricular accessory pathways in postseptated embryonic avian hearts: implications for morphogenesis and functional maturation of the cardiac conduction system. Circulation. 2007 Jan 02; 115(1):17-26. PMID: 17190860.
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    90. Butcher JT, Norris RA, Hoffman S, Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Periostin promotes atrioventricular mesenchyme matrix invasion and remodeling mediated by integrin signaling through Rho/PI 3-kinase. Dev Biol. 2007 Feb 01; 302(1):256-66. PMID: 17070513.
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    91. Visconti RP, Markwald RR. Recruitment of new cells into the postnatal heart: potential modification of phenotype by periostin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct; 1080:19-33. PMID: 17132772.
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    92. Pérez-Pomares JM, Mironov V, Guadix JA, Macías D, Markwald RR, Muñoz-Chápuli R. In vitro self-assembly of proepicardial cell aggregates: an embryonic vasculogenic model for vascular tissue engineering. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006 Jul; 288(7):700-13. PMID: 16761281.
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    93. Mironov V, Visconti RP, Markwald RR. American Association of Anatomists meeting on regenerative medicine. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006 Jul; 6(7):727-30. PMID: 16805712.
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    94. Visconti RP, Ebihara Y, LaRue AC, Fleming PA, McQuinn TC, Masuya M, Minamiguchi H, Markwald RR, Ogawa M, Drake CJ. An in vivo analysis of hematopoietic stem cell potential: hematopoietic origin of cardiac valve interstitial cells. Circ Res. 2006 Mar 17; 98(5):690-6. PMID: 16456103.
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    95. Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Krug EL, Reyes L, Villavicencio L, Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Bidirectional fusion of the heart-forming fields in the developing chick embryo. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan; 235(1):191-202. PMID: 16252277.
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    96. Mironov V, Kasyanov VA, Yost MJ, Visconti R, Twal W, Trusk T, Wen X, Ozolanta I, Kadishs A, Prestwich GD, Terracio L, Markwald RR. Cardiovascular tissue engineering I. Perfusion bioreactors: a review. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2006; 16(2):111-30. PMID: 16700652.
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    97. Bernanke DH, Markwald RR. Classics in anatomy: Keith Porter's Harvey Lecture, "the submicroscopic morphology of protoplasm". Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Dec; 287(2):1183. PMID: 16265624.
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    98. Litvin J, Zhu S, Norris R, Markwald R. Periostin family of proteins: therapeutic targets for heart disease. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 Dec; 287(2):1205-12. PMID: 16240445.
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    99. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Zheng Shu X, Eisenberg C, Eisenberg L, Gonda S, Trusk T, Markwald RR, Prestwich GD. Fabrication of tubular tissue constructs by centrifugal casting of cells suspended in an in situ crosslinkable hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogel. Biomaterials. 2005 Dec; 26(36):7628-35. PMID: 16023201.
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    100. Mironov V, Visconti RP, Markwald RR. On the role of shear stress in cardiogenesis. Endothelium. 2005 Sep-Dec; 12(5-6):259-61. PMID: 16410225.
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    101. Kasyanov V, Isenburg J, Draughn RA, Hazard S, Hodde J, Ozolanta I, Murovska M, Halkes SB, Vrasidas I, Liskamp RM, Pieters RJ, Simionescu D, Markwald RR, Mironov V. Tannic acid mimicking dendrimers as small intestine submucosa stabilizing nanomordants. Biomaterials. 2006 Feb; 27(5):745-51. PMID: 16102811.
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    102. Norris RA, Kern CB, Wessels A, Wirrig EE, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Detection of betaig-H3, a TGFbeta induced gene, during cardiac development and its complementary pattern with periostin. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2005 Aug; 210(1):13-23. PMID: 16034610.
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    103. Eisenberg LM, Moreno R, Markwald RR. Multiple stem cell populations contribute to the formation of the myocardium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun; 1047:38-49. PMID: 16093483.
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    104. Kern CB, Hoffman S, Moreno R, Damon BJ, Norris RA, Krug EL, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Immunolocalization of chick periostin protein in the developing heart. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005 May; 284(1):415-23. PMID: 15803479.
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    105. Fisk NM, Roberts IA, Markwald R, Mironov V. Can routine commercial cord blood banking be scientifically and ethically justified? PLoS Med. 2005 Feb; 2(2):e44. PMID: 15737000.
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    106. Angelini P, Markwald RR. Stem cell treatment of the heart: a review of its current status on the brink of clinical experimentation. Tex Heart Inst J. 2005; 32(4):479-88. PMID: 16429891.
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    107. Norris RA, Kern CB, Wessels A, Moralez EI, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. Identification and detection of the periostin gene in cardiac development. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004 Dec; 281(2):1227-33. PMID: 15532025.
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    108. Eisenberg LM, Markwald RR. Cellular recruitment and the development of the myocardium. Dev Biol. 2004 Oct 15; 274(2):225-32. PMID: 15385154.
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    109. Mironov V, Visconti RP, Markwald RR. What is regenerative medicine? Emergence of applied stem cell and developmental biology. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2004 Jun; 4(6):773-81. PMID: 15174961.
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    110. Sugi Y, Yamamura H, Okagawa H, Markwald RR. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 can mediate myocardial regulation of atrioventricular cushion mesenchymal cell formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2004 May 15; 269(2):505-18. PMID: 15110716.
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    111. Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Wang J, Maeda M, Rogers R, Krug E, Hoffman S, Markwald RR, Conway SJ. Periostin is expressed within the developing teeth at the sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Dev Dyn. 2004 Apr; 229(4):857-68. PMID: 15042709.
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    112. Jakab K, Neagu A, Mironov V, Markwald RR, Forgacs G. Engineering biological structures of prescribed shape using self-assembling multicellular systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 02; 101(9):2864-9. PMID: 14981244.
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    113. Sugi Y, Markwald RR. Endodermal growth factors promote endocardial precursor cell formation from precardiac mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2003 Nov 01; 263(1):35-49. PMID: 14568545.
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    114. Markwald R. Desktop organ printing. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2003 Jul; 273(1):120-1. PMID: 12913952.
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    115. Haines DE, Markwald R. The 2003 Henry Gray award. Anat Rec B New Anat. 2003 Jul; 273(1):124-5. PMID: 12833271.
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    116. Sugi Y, Ito N, Szebenyi G, Myers K, Fallon JF, Mikawa T, Markwald RR. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-4 can induce proliferation of cardiac cushion mesenchymal cells during early valve leaflet formation. Dev Biol. 2003 Jun 15; 258(2):252-63. PMID: 12798286.
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    117. Boland T, Mironov V, Gutowska A, Roth EA, Markwald RR. Cell and organ printing 2: fusion of cell aggregates in three-dimensional gels. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2003 Jun; 272(2):497-502. PMID: 12740943.
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    118. Mironov V, Kasyanov V, McAllister K, Oliver S, Sistino J, Markwald R. Perfusion bioreactor for vascular tissue engineering with capacities for longitudinal stretch. J Craniofac Surg. 2003 May; 14(3):340-7. PMID: 12826805.
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    119. Mironov V, Boland T, Trusk T, Forgacs G, Markwald RR. Organ printing: computer-aided jet-based 3D tissue engineering. Trends Biotechnol. 2003 Apr; 21(4):157-61. PMID: 12679063.
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    120. Markwald R. Development of the cardiac conduction system. Introduction. Novartis Found Symp. 2003; 250:1-5. PMID: 12956320.
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    121. van den Hoff MJ, Kruithof BP, Moorman AF, Markwald RR, Wessels A. Formation of myocardium after the initial development of the linear heart tube. Dev Biol. 2001 Dec 01; 240(1):61-76. PMID: 11784047.
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    122. de la Cruz MV, Markwald RR, Krug EL, Rumenoff L, Sánchez Gómez C, Sadowinski S, Galicia TD, Gómez F, Salazar García M, Villavicencio Guzman L, Reyes Angeles L, Moreno-Rodriguez RA. Living morphogenesis of the ventricles and congenital pathology of their component parts. Cardiol Young. 2001 Nov; 11(6):588-600. PMID: 11813909.
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    123. Mjaatvedt CH, Nakaoka T, Moreno-Rodriguez R, Norris RA, Kern MJ, Eisenberg CA, Turner D, Markwald RR. The outflow tract of the heart is recruited from a novel heart-forming field. Dev Biol. 2001 Oct 01; 238(1):97-109. PMID: 11783996.
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    124. Mironov V, Markwald RR. Anatomy of tissue engineering. Anat Rec. 2001 08 01; 263(4):335. PMID: 11500808.
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    125. Kruzynska-Frejtag A, Machnicki M, Rogers R, Markwald RR, Conway SJ. Periostin (an osteoblast-specific factor) is expressed within the embryonic mouse heart during valve formation. Mech Dev. 2001 May; 103(1-2):183-8. PMID: 11335131.
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    126. Markwald R. Maria Victoria de la Cruz (1916-1999). Cardiol Young. 2001 May; 11(3):322-8. PMID: 11388628.
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    127. Timmermans JP, Markwald RR, Litke LL. Introduction to the special issue "the enteric nervous system and its targets" Anat Rec. 2001 01 01; 262(1):I. PMID: 11146436.
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    128. Waller BR, McQuinn T, Phelps AL, Markwald RR, Lo CW, Thompson RP, Wessels A. Conotruncal anomalies in the trisomy 16 mouse: an immunohistochemical analysis with emphasis on the involvement of the neural crest. Anat Rec. 2000 11 01; 260(3):279-93. PMID: 11066038.
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    129. Wessels A, Anderson RH, Markwald RR, Webb S, Brown NA, Viragh S, Moorman AF, Lamers WH. Atrial development in the human heart: an immunohistochemical study with emphasis on the role of mesenchymal tissues. Anat Rec. 2000 07 01; 259(3):288-300. PMID: 10861362.
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    130. Pierpont ME, Markwald RR, Lin AE. Genetic aspects of atrioventricular septal defects. Am J Med Genet. 2000; 97(4):289-96. PMID: 11376440.
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    131. Wessels A, Markwald R. Cardiac morphogenesis and dysmorphogenesis. I. Normal development. Methods Mol Biol. 2000; 136:239-59. PMID: 10840715.
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    132. van den Hoff MJ, Moorman AF, Ruijter JM, Lamers WH, Bennington RW, Markwald RR, Wessels A. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract. Dev Biol. 1999 Aug 15; 212(2):477-90. PMID: 10433836.
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    133. Nakajima Y, Yamagishi T, Nakamura H, Markwald RR, Krug EL. An autocrine function for transforming growth factor beta 3 in the atrioventricular endocardial cushion tissue formation during chick heart development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1998 Oct 23; 857:272-5. PMID: 9917855.
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    134. Mjaatvedt CH, Yamamura H, Capehart AA, Turner D, Markwald RR. The Cspg2 gene, disrupted in the hdf mutant, is required for right cardiac chamber and endocardial cushion formation. Dev Biol. 1998 Oct 01; 202(1):56-66. PMID: 9758703.
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    135. Nakajima Y, Yamagishi T, Nakamura H, Markwald RR, Krug EL. An autocrine function for transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta3 in the transformation of atrioventricular canal endocardium into mesenchyme during chick heart development. Dev Biol. 1998 Feb 01; 194(1):99-113. PMID: 9473335.
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    136. Ramsdell AF, Moreno-Rodriguez RA, Wienecke MM, Sugi Y, Turner DK, Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Identification of an autocrine signaling pathway that amplifies induction of endocardial cushion tissue in the avian heart. Acta Anat (Basel). 1998; 162(1):1-15. PMID: 9789103.
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    137. Eisenberg CA, Markwald RR. Mixed cultures of avian blastoderm cells and the quail mesoderm cell line QCE-6 provide evidence for the pluripotentiality of early mesoderm. Dev Biol. 1997 Nov 15; 191(2):167-81. PMID: 9398432.
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    138. Ramsdell AF, Markwald RR. Induction of endocardial cushion tissue in the avian heart is regulated, in part, by TGFbeta-3-mediated autocrine signaling. Dev Biol. 1997 Aug 01; 188(1):64-74. PMID: 9245512.
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    139. Nakajima Y, Mironov V, Yamagishi T, Nakamura H, Markwald RR. Expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin in mesenchymal cells during formation of avian endocardial cushion tissue: a role for transforming growth factor beta3. Dev Dyn. 1997 Jul; 209(3):296-309. PMID: 9215644.
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    140. Yamamura H, Zhang M, Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH. A heart segmental defect in the anterior-posterior axis of a transgenic mutant mouse. Dev Biol. 1997 Jun 01; 186(1):58-72. PMID: 9188753.
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    141. DeRuiter MC, Poelmann RE, VanMunsteren JC, Mironov V, Markwald RR, Gittenberger-de Groot AC. Embryonic endothelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cells expressing smooth muscle actins in vivo and in vitro. Circ Res. 1997 Apr; 80(4):444-51. PMID: 9118474.
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    142. McClay DR, Damsky CH, Bronner-Fraser M, Wylie C, Bernfield M, Markwald RR. NIEHS/EPA Workshops. Cellular migration. Reprod Toxicol. 1997 Mar-Jun; 11(2-3):321-9. PMID: 9100307.
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    143. Smith SM, Dickman ED, Thompson RP, Sinning AR, Wunsch AM, Markwald RR. Retinoic acid directs cardiac laterality and the expression of early markers of precardiac asymmetry. Dev Biol. 1997 Feb 01; 182(1):162-71. PMID: 9073458.
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    144. Tasaka H, Krug EL, Markwald RR. Origin of the pulmonary venous orifice in the mouse and its relation to the morphogenesis of the sinus venosus, extracardiac mesenchyme (spina vestibuli), and atrium. Anat Rec. 1996 Sep; 246(1):107-13. PMID: 8876829.
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    145. Sugi Y, Markwald RR. Formation and early morphogenesis of endocardial endothelial precursor cells and the role of endoderm. Dev Biol. 1996 Apr 10; 175(1):66-83. PMID: 8608870.
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    146. Hiltgen GG, Markwald RR, Litke LL. Morphogenetic alterations during endocardial cushion development in the trisomy 16 (Down syndrome) mouse. Pediatr Cardiol. 1996 Jan-Feb; 17(1):21-30. PMID: 8778697.
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    147. Markwald R, Eisenberg C, Eisenberg L, Trusk T, Sugi Y. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformations in early avian heart development. Acta Anat (Basel). 1996; 156(3):173-86. PMID: 9124035.
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    148. Eisenberg LM, Markwald RR. Molecular regulation of atrioventricular valvuloseptal morphogenesis. Circ Res. 1995 Jul; 77(1):1-6. PMID: 7788867.
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    149. Krug EL, Rezaee M, Isokawa K, Turner DK, Litke LL, Wunsch AM, Bain JL, Riley DA, Capehart AA, Markwald RR. Transformation of cardiac endothelium into cushion mesenchyme is dependent on ES/130: temporal, spatial, and functional studies in the early chick embryo. Cell Mol Biol Res. 1995; 41(4):263-77. PMID: 8775984.
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    150. Sinning AR, Hewitt CC, Markwald RR. A subset of SBA lectin-binding proteins isolated from myocardial-conditioned media transforms cardiac endothelium into mesenchyme. Acta Anat (Basel). 1995; 154(2):111-9. PMID: 8722510.
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    151. Byeon MK, Sugi Y, Markwald RR, Hoffman S. NCAM polypeptides in heart development: association with Z discs of forms that contain the muscle-specific domain. J Cell Biol. 1995 Jan; 128(1-2):209-21. PMID: 7822416.
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    152. Sugi Y, Markwald RR. Early endocardial formation originates from precardiac mesoderm as revealed by QH-1 antibody staining. Ital J Anat Embryol. 1995; 100 Suppl 1:263-72. PMID: 11322300.
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    153. Wunsch AM, Little CD, Markwald RR. Cardiac endothelial heterogeneity defines valvular development as demonstrated by the diverse expression of JB3, an antigen of the endocardial cushion tissue. Dev Biol. 1994 Oct; 165(2):585-601. PMID: 7958424.
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    154. Nakajima Y, Krug EL, Markwald RR. Myocardial regulation of transforming growth factor-beta expression by outflow tract endothelium in the early embryonic chick heart. Dev Biol. 1994 Oct; 165(2):615-26. PMID: 7958426.
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    155. Isokawa K, Rezaee M, Wunsch A, Markwald RR, Krug EL. Identification of transferrin as one of multiple EDTA-extractable extracellular proteins involved in early chick heart morphogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 1994 Feb; 54(2):207-18. PMID: 8175895.
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    156. Rezaee M, Isokawa K, Halligan N, Markwald RR, Krug EL. Identification of an extracellular 130-kDa protein involved in early cardiac morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 05; 268(19):14404-11. PMID: 7686155.
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    157. Bolender DL, Lawrence J, Krug EL, Markwald RR. Effects of ectoderm co-culture and conditioned medium on the limb mesoderm in vitro. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1993; 383A:141-51. PMID: 8302890.
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    158. Isokawa K, Krug EL, Fallon JF, Markwald RR. Morphogenetic potential of leg bud mesoderm to express limb-like characteristics in vitro. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1993; 383A:351-60. PMID: 8302908.
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    159. Isokawa K, Krug EL, Fallon JF, Markwald RR. Leg bud mesoderm retains morphogenetic potential to express limb-like characteristics ("limbness") in collagen gel culture. Dev Dyn. 1992 Apr; 193(4):314-24. PMID: 1511171.
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    160. Sinning AR, Krug EL, Markwald RR. Multiple glycoproteins localize to a particulate form of extracellular matrix in regions of the embryonic heart where endothelial cells transform into mesenchyme. Anat Rec. 1992 Feb; 232(2):285-92. PMID: 1546806.
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    161. Mjaatvedt CH, Krug EL, Markwald RR. An antiserum (ES1) against a particulate form of extracellular matrix blocks the transition of cardiac endothelium into mesenchyme in culture. Dev Biol. 1991 Jun; 145(2):219-30. PMID: 2040370.
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    162. Markwald RR, Mjaatvedt CH, Krug EL, Sinning AR. Inductive interactions in heart development. Role of cardiac adherons in cushion tissue formation. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 588:13-25. PMID: 2192638.
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    163. Kushnaryov VM, Sedmak JJ, Markwald RR, Faculjak ML, Loo PM. Actin and lamin comprised filaments in the nuclei of Chinese hamster ovary cells affected with Clostridium difficile enterotoxin A. Cytobios. 1990; 64(258-259):181-96. PMID: 2090392.
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    164. Markwald RR, Bolender DL, Krug EL, Lepera R. Morphogenesis of precursor subpopulations of chicken limb mesenchyme in three dimensional collagen gel culture. Anat Rec. 1990 Jan; 226(1):91-107. PMID: 2297086.
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    165. Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition by an in vivo adheron-like complex. Dev Biol. 1989 Nov; 136(1):118-28. PMID: 2509260.
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    166. Young HE, Dalley BK, Markwald RR. Glycoconjugates in normal wound tissue matrices during the initiation phase of limb regeneration in adult Ambystoma. Anat Rec. 1989 Feb; 223(2):231-41. PMID: 2496626.
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    167. Young HE, Dalley BK, Markwald RR. Effect of selected denervations on glycoconjugate composition and tissue morphology during the initiation phase of limb regeneration in adult Ambystoma. Anat Rec. 1989 Feb; 223(2):223-30. PMID: 2496625.
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    168. Sinning AR, Lepera RC, Markwald RR. Initial expression of type I procollagen in chick cardiac mesenchyme is dependent upon myocardial stimulation. Dev Biol. 1988 Nov; 130(1):167-74. PMID: 3053293.
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    169. Brauer PR, Markwald RR. Specific configurations of fibronectin-containing particles correlate with pathways taken by neural crest cells at two axial levels. Anat Rec. 1988 Sep; 222(1):69-82. PMID: 2461126.
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    170. Brauer PR, Markwald RR. Attachment of neural crest cells to endogenous extracellular matrices. Anat Rec. 1987 Nov; 219(3):275-85. PMID: 3425946.
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    171. Kitten GT, Markwald RR, Bolender DL. Distribution of basement membrane antigens in cryopreserved early embryonic hearts. Anat Rec. 1987 Apr; 217(4):379-90. PMID: 3592264.
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    172. Krug EL, Mjaatvedt CH, Markwald RR. Extracellular matrix from embryonic myocardium elicits an early morphogenetic event in cardiac endothelial differentiation. Dev Biol. 1987 Apr; 120(2):348-55. PMID: 3556758.
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    173. Mjaatvedt CH, Lepera RC, Markwald RR. Myocardial specificity for initiating endothelial-mesenchymal cell transition in embryonic chick heart correlates with a particulate distribution of fibronectin. Dev Biol. 1987 Jan; 119(1):59-67. PMID: 3539667.
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    174. Markwald RR. Role of extracellular matrix in morphogenesis. Mead Johnson Symp Perinat Dev Med. 1987; (29):7-13. PMID: 3332907.
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    175. Funderburg FM, Markwald RR. Conditioning of native substrates by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans during cardiac mesenchymal cell migration. J Cell Biol. 1986 Dec; 103(6 Pt 1):2475-87. PMID: 3782305.
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    176. Krug EL, Markwald RR. Extracellular cardiac proteins activate chick endothelial transition to prevalvular mesenchyme. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1986; 217B:195-8. PMID: 3749177.
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    177. Krug EL, Runyan RB, Markwald RR. Protein extracts from early embryonic hearts initiate cardiac endothelial cytodifferentiation. Dev Biol. 1985 Dec; 112(2):414-26. PMID: 3935503.
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    178. Young HE, Bailey CF, Markwald RR, Dalley BK. Histological analysis of limb regeneration in postmetamorphic adult Ambystoma. Anat Rec. 1985 Jun; 212(2):183-94. PMID: 3842040.
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    179. Brauer PR, Bolender DL, Markwald RR. The distribution and spatial organization of the extracellular matrix encountered by mesencephalic neural crest cells. Anat Rec. 1985 Jan; 211(1):57-68. PMID: 3985379.
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    180. Bernanke DH, Markwald RR. Effects of two glycosaminoglycans on seeding of cardiac cushion tissue cells into a collagen-lattice culture system. Anat Rec. 1984 Sep; 210(1):25-31. PMID: 6435480.
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    181. Hay DA, Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP. Selected views of early heart development by scanning electron microscopy. Scan Electron Microsc. 1984; (Pt 4):1983-93. PMID: 6523064.
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    182. Markwald RR, Funderburg FM. Use of 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine to study interaction between myocardial glycoconjugate secretion and endothelial activation in the early embryonic chick heart. Dev Biol. 1983 Oct; 99(2):395-407. PMID: 6618009.
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    183. Hay DA, Markwald RR, Sage AP. Endocytic activity in embryonic cardiac cushion mesenchyme in vivo and in collagen gel lattices. Anat Rec. 1983 Mar; 205(3):331-46. PMID: 6837945.
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    184. Runyan RB, Markwald RR. Invasion of mesenchyme into three-dimensional collagen gels: a regional and temporal analysis of interaction in embryonic heart tissue. Dev Biol. 1983 Jan; 95(1):108-14. PMID: 6825921.
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    185. Fitzharris TP, Markwald RR. Cellular migration through the cardiac jelly matrix: a stereoanalysis by high-voltage electron microscopy. Dev Biol. 1982 Aug; 92(2):315-29. PMID: 7117690.
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    186. Barron EA, Markwald RR, Nathan RD. Localization of sialic acid at the surface of embryonic myocardial cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1982 Jul; 14(7):381-95. PMID: 7175946.
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    187. Bernanke DH, Markwald RR. Migratory behavior of cardiac cushion tissue cells in a collagen-lattice culture system. Dev Biol. 1982 Jun; 91(2):235-45. PMID: 7095266.
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    188. Markwald RR, Krook JM, Kitten GT, Runyan RB. Endocardial cushion tissue development: structural analyses on the attachment of extracellular matrix to migrating mesenchymal cell surfaces. Scan Electron Microsc. 1981; (Pt 2):261-74. PMID: 7034167.
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    189. Bolender DL, Seliger WG, Markwald RR, Brauer PR. Structural analysis of extracellular matrix prior to the migration of cephalic neural crest cells. Scan Electron Microsc. 1981; (Pt 2):285-96. PMID: 7034169.
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    190. Nathan RD, Fung SJ, Stocco DM, Barron EA, Markwald RR. Sialic acid: regulation of electrogenesis in cultured heart cells. Am J Physiol. 1980 Nov; 239(5):C197-207. PMID: 6776822.
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    191. Fitzharris TP, Markwald RR, Dunn BE. Effects of beta-aminopropionitrile fumurate (BAPN) on early heart development. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1980 Jun; 12(6):553-77. PMID: 7452734.
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    192. Bolender DL, Seliger WG, Markwald RR. A histochemical analysis of polyanoinic compounds found in the extracellular matrix encountered by migrating cephalic neural crest cells. Anat Rec. 1980; 196(4):401-12. PMID: 6156611.
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    193. Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP, Bernanke DH. Morphologic recognition of complex carbohydrates in embryonic cardiac extracellular matrix. J Histochem Cytochem. 1979 Aug; 27(8):1171-3. PMID: 479561.
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    194. Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP, Bolender DL, Bernanke DH. Sturctural analysis of cell:matrix association during the morphogenesis of atrioventricular cushion tissue. Dev Biol. 1979 Apr; 69(2):634-54. PMID: 437356.
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    195. Bolender DL, Markwald RR. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation in chick atrioventricular cushion morphogenesis. Scan Electron Microsc. 1979; (3):313-21. PMID: 524004.
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    196. Markwald RR. The role of extracellular matrix in cardiogenesis. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1979; 39:249-51. PMID: 553312.
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    197. Bernanke DH, Markwald RR. Effects of hyaluronic acid on cardiac cushion tissue cells in collagen matrix cultures. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1979; 39:271-85. PMID: 553314.
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    198. Markwald RR, Funderberg FM, Bernanke DH. Glycosaminoglycans: potential determinants in cardiac morphogenesis. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1979; 39:253-70. PMID: 553313.
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    199. Fitzharris TP, Thompson RP, Markwald RR. Matrical ordering in the morphogenesis of tunica media. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1979; 39:287-304. PMID: 553315.
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    200. Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP, Bank H, Bernanke DH. Structural analyses on the matrical organization of glycosaminoglycans in developing endocardial cushions. Dev Biol. 1978 Feb; 62(2):292-316. PMID: 564303.
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    201. Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP, Manasek FJ. Structural development of endocardial cushions. Am J Anat. 1977 Jan; 148(1):85-119. PMID: 842477.
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    202. Markwald RR, Fitzharris TP, Smith WN. Sturctural analysis of endocardial cytodifferentiation. Dev Biol. 1975 Jan; 42(1):160-80. PMID: 1112439.
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    203. Markwald RR. Distribution and relationship of precursor Z material to organizing myofibrillar bundles in embryonic rat and hamster ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1973 Aug; 5(4):341-50. PMID: 4355337.
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    204. Markwald RR, Smith WN. Distribution of mucosubstances in the developing rat heart. J Histochem Cytochem. 1972 Nov; 20(11):896-907. PMID: 4118199.
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