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Richard R. Drake

TitleEndowed Chair, Proteomics
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentCell and Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
AddressP.O. Box MSC 509
CRI 310
Children's Research Inst. - 173 Ashley Ave.
Phone843-792-4505
Fax843-792-2475
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    MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry and Glycoprotein Biomarkers of Cancer - In my laboratory, a variety of mass spectrometry tools within the MUSC Proteomics Center and Mass Spectrometry Facility are being applied to cancer diagnosis and prognosis research. Our emphasis is the application of these tools for analysis of clinically derived tissues, fluids and exosomes to develop proteomic-based or small molecule diagnostic assays, with a particular focus on glycosylation and its role in disease. A new state-of-the-art, translational MALDI Imaging Research Center has been created. The facility is anchored by a dual-source Bruker Daltonic 7T Solarix FTICR mass spectrometer, two Bruker AutoFlex III MALDI instruments, ImagePrep sprayer and nanoLiter Cool Wave spotter. These are complemented by a Thermo Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer and an Agilent Triversa Nanomate with LESA-MS for direct analysis of post-translational modifications to proteins. This instrumentation is being applied to multiple translational cancer research projects within my laboratory, as well as collaborations within the department and throughout the NCI-designated Hollings Cancer Center . These projects combine the capabilities of the MUSC Proteomics Center with clinical research, lipidomic, biorepository and molecular pathology resources. The current cancers being targeted are primarily prostate, kidney and pancreatic cancers. The major research areas of the Drake laboratory are summarized as follows.

    MALDI Mass Spectrometry Tissue Imaging of Proteins, Glycans, Lipids and Drug Metabolites - MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is an established method used primarily to spatially profile proteins, lipids, drug and small molecule metabolites in tissues. Using the resources of the MUSC Proteomics Center and MALDI Imaging Research Center, our group has recently developed a glycobiology approach using on-tissue peptide N-glycanase F (PNGaseF) digestion to directly profile released N-linked glycans in their local microenvironment. Glycan profiling has been successfully used with fresh frozen and formalin-fixed tissues, and more recently, adapted to tissue microarrays representing prostate, lung, breast and pancreatic cancers. Using the dual-source Solarix FTICR MS instrumentation, another research emphasis is the development of methods to spatially profile bioactive ceramide, sphingosine and glycolipid specie distribution in tissues of clinical interest. A reference database of ceramide and glycosphingolipid masses for use in tissue imaging analysis has been created using tissues derived from lysosomal storage disease models (in collaboration with Jeffrey Medin, Univ. of Toronto and Yusuf Hannun, Stonybrook University), Drug uptake and metabolism in tissues derived from pre-clinical model systems is also ongoing, working in conjunction with researchers in the Hollings Cancer Center and the Developmental Cancer Therapeutics program. Using these approaches, a global snapshot of major cellular glycan, lipid and protein components is obtained, which includes their tissue localization and distribution, structure and relative concentration. The preparation and analysis workflows are readily linked to standard histopathology procedures. The method has been applied to multiple frozen tissues types, with emphasis on human renal, prostate and lung cancer tissues matched for tumor and non-tumor pieces, and tissues from different therapeutic mouse xenograft models of cancer. For clear cell renal cancer tissues, defining biomolecules that are unique to the non-tumor and tumor margin interface are being assessed. Current MALDI imaging analysis of these margin regions have identified multiple glycan, phospholipid, ceramide and protein species differentially expressed relative to non-tumor and tumor regions. Linking these biomolecular differences to known mediators of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions, pathology correlates and tumor metastasis are ongoing. The methods are also being applied to non-small cell lung carcinoma tissue, and a unique cohort of prostate tissues from an ongoing Vitamin D supplementation study prior to prostatectomy.

    Identification of Prostate and Lung Cancer Glycoprotein Biomarkers - Our overall research goal is the identification of glycoprotein biomarkers that will improve clinical decision-making in the detection and management of prostate and lung cancers. My laboratory has been part of a systemic effort to characterize and identify potential biomarker targets in proximal fluids of the prostate, including direct prostatic fluids obtained just prior to prostatectomy, and expressed prostatic secretions in urine obtained in the urology clinic following digital rectal exam. Our recent publications cumulatively describe the identification of over 1100 proteins identified in post-DRE expressed prostatic secretions in urine (EPS-urine) and prostatic fluids termed direct EPS obtained at the time of prostatectomy. Lastly, we have completed the proteome analysis of exosomes from pooled EPS samples from benign, indolent and aggressive cancers. These cumulative lists are near complete and available for rapid glycoprotein candidate screening in future studies. For lung cancers, NSCLC tissue and bronchoalveilar lavage samples were obtained from the Lung Cancer Biospecimen Resource Network and Dr. Chad Denlinger at MUSC New HCD-ETD workflows for direct analysis of EPS and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, exosomes and tissue glycopeptides associated with disease status are in progress. Corresponding glycomic and lipidomic analyses of the same fluids and samples are also ongoing.

    A complementary biomarker discovery approach is being done using metabolic labeling with sugar-azides and alkyne-bead click chemistry to capture secreted and cell surface glycoproteins in human-derived prostate and lung cancer cell line models. A current emphasis is with cell lines associated with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition. The current workflow uses N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc-Az) or sialic acid (ManNAc-Az) analogs for metabolic labeling, cell lysis or concentration of conditioned media, and Click chemistry conjugation to alkyne beads. The bead-bound azide-modified glycoproteins can be extensively washed prior to direct protease digestion on the beads, which significantly reduces the background of non-specific, unmodified proteins identified at the mass spectrometry stage. Captured glycoproteins are digested directly from the beads and the resulting peptides analyzed on the Orbitrap Elite for protein identification and development of HCD-ETD glycopeptide analysis workflows. Bioinformatic pathway analysis is then done to link the proteins to molecular function and cancer biology. This biomarker selection step is being coupled with the EPS protein lists, and more recently bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, as part of a further biomarker candidate verification strategy.

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    Cancer/Sarcoma, Cancer

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Herrera H, Dilday T, Uber A, Scott D, Zambrano JN, Wang M, Angel PM, Mehta AS, Drake RR, Hill EG, Yeh ES. Core-Fucosylated Tetra-Antennary N-Glycan Containing A Single N-Acetyllactosamine Branch Is Associated with Poor Survival Outcome in Breast Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 23; 20(10). PMID: 31126011.
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    2. Yang L, Kraemer M, Fang XF, Angel PM, Drake RR, Morris AJ, Smyth SS. LPA receptor 4 deficiency attenuates experimental atherosclerosis. J Lipid Res. 2019 May; 60(5):972-980. PMID: 30796085.
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    3. Staal B, Liu Y, Barnett D, Hsueh P, He Z, Gao C, Partyka K, Hurd MW, Singhi AD, Drake RR, Huang Y, Maitra A, Brand RE, Haab BB. The sTRA Plasma Biomarker: Blinded Validation of Improved Accuracy Over CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer Diagnosis. Clin Cancer Res. 2019 May 01; 25(9):2745-2754. PMID: 30617132.
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    4. Scott DA, Casadonte R, Cardinali B, Spruill L, Mehta AS, Carli F, Simone N, Kriegsmann M, Del Mastro L, Kriegsmann J, Drake RR. Increases in Tumor N-Glycan Polylactosamines Associated with Advanced HER2-Positive and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Tissues. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2019 01; 13(1):e1800014. PMID: 30592377.
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    5. Angel PM, Schwamborn K, Comte-Walters S, Clift CL, Ball LE, Mehta AS, Drake RR. Extracellular Matrix Imaging of Breast Tissue Pathologies by MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2019 01; 13(1):e1700152. PMID: 30251340.
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    6. West CA, Wang M, Herrera H, Liang H, Black A, Angel PM, Drake RR, Mehta AS. N-Linked Glycan Branching and Fucosylation Are Increased Directly in Hcc Tissue As Determined through in Situ Glycan Imaging. J Proteome Res. 2018 10 05; 17(10):3454-3462. PMID: 30110170.
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    7. Angel PM, Norris-Caneda K, Drake RR. In Situ Imaging of Tryptic Peptides by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Fresh-Frozen or Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2018 11; 94(1):e65. PMID: 30114342.
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    8. Drake RR, Powers TW, Norris-Caneda K, Mehta AS, Angel PM. In Situ Imaging of N-Glycans by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of Fresh or Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue. Curr Protoc Protein Sci. 2018 11; 94(1):e68. PMID: 30074304.
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    9. McDonald WS, Jones EE, Wojciak JM, Drake RR, Sabbadini RA, Harris NG. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mapping of Lysophosphatidic Acid Changes after Traumatic Brain Injury and the Relationship to Cellular Pathology. Am J Pathol. 2018 Aug; 188(8):1779-1793. PMID: 30037420.
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    10. Mulligan JK, Patel K, Williamson T, Reaves N, Carroll W, Stephenson SE, Gao P, Drake RR, Neely BA, Tomlinson S, Schlosser RJ, Atkinson C. C3a receptor antagonism as a novel therapeutic target for chronic rhinosinusitis. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 09; 11(5):1375-1385. PMID: 29907871.
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    11. Helke K, Angel P, Lu P, Garrett-Mayer E, Ogretmen B, Drake R, Voelkel-Johnson C. Ceramide Synthase 6 Deficiency Enhances Inflammation in the DSS model of Colitis. Sci Rep. 2018 01 26; 8(1):1627. PMID: 29374263.
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    12. Hasegawa T, Glavich GJ, Pahuski M, Short A, Semmes OJ, Yang L, Galkin V, Drake R, Esquela-Kerscher A. Characterization and Evidence of the miR-888 Cluster as a Novel Cancer Network in Prostate. Mol Cancer Res. 2018 04; 16(4):669-681. PMID: 29330297.
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    13. Scott DA, Norris-Caneda K, Spruill L, Bruner E, Kono Y, Angel PM, Mehta AS, Drake RR. Specific N-Linked Glycosylation Patterns in Areas of Necrosis in Tumor Tissues. Int J Mass Spectrom. 2019 Mar; 437:69-76. PMID: 31031563.
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    14. Drake RR, West CA, Mehta AS, Angel PM. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of N-Linked Glycans in Tissues. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1104:59-76. PMID: 30484244.
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    15. Angel PM, Mehta A, Norris-Caneda K, Drake RR. MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry of N-glycans and Tryptic Peptides from the Same Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Section. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1788:225-241. PMID: 29058228.
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    16. Mercer KE, Pulliam CF, Hennings L, Cleves MA, Jones EE, Drake RR, Ronis MJJ. Diet Supplementation with Soy Protein Isolate, but Not the Isoflavone Genistein, Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Tumor Progression in DEN-Treated Male Mice. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1032:115-126. PMID: 30362095.
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    17. Angel PM, Comte-Walters S, Ball LE, Talbot K, Mehta A, Brockbank KGM, Drake RR. Mapping Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry. J Proteome Res. 2018 01 05; 17(1):635-646. PMID: 29161047.
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    18. Jones EE, Zhang W, Zhao X, Quiason C, Dale S, Shahidi-Latham S, Grabowski GA, Setchell KDR, Drake RR, Sun Y. Tissue Localization of Glycosphingolipid Accumulation in a Gaucher Disease Mouse Brain by LC-ESI-MS/MS and High-Resolution MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry. SLAS Discov. 2017 12; 22(10):1218-1228. PMID: 28714776.
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    19. Barnett D, Liu Y, Partyka K, Huang Y, Tang H, Hostetter G, Brand RE, Singhi AD, Drake RR, Haab BB. The CA19-9 and Sialyl-TRA Antigens Define Separate Subpopulations of Pancreatic Cancer Cells. Sci Rep. 2017 06 22; 7(1):4020. PMID: 28642461.
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    20. Sikora J, Dworski S, Jones EE, Kamani MA, Micsenyi MC, Sawada T, Le Faouder P, Bertrand-Michel J, Dupuy A, Dunn CK, Xuan ICY, Casas J, Fabrias G, Hampson DR, Levade T, Drake RR, Medin JA, Walkley SU. Acid Ceramidase Deficiency in Mice Results in a Broad Range of Central Nervous System Abnormalities. Am J Pathol. 2017 Apr; 187(4):864-883. PMID: 28342444.
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    21. Angel PM, Baldwin HS, Gottlieb Sen D, Su YR, Mayer JE, Bichell D, Drake RR. Advances in MALDI imaging mass spectrometry of proteins in cardiac tissue, including the heart valve. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017 Jul; 1865(7):927-935. PMID: 28341601.
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    22. Drake RR, McDonnell LA. Preface. Adv Cancer Res. 2017; 134:xiii-xiv. PMID: 28110658.
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    23. McDonnell LA, Angel PM, Lou S, Drake RR. Mass Spectrometry Imaging in Cancer Research: Future Perspectives. Adv Cancer Res. 2017; 134:283-290. PMID: 28110655.
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    24. Shao S, Neely BA, Kao TC, Eckhaus J, Bourgeois J, Brooks J, Jones EE, Drake RR, Zhu K. Proteomic Profiling of Serial Prediagnostic Serum Samples for Early Detection of Colon Cancer in the U.S. Military. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 05; 26(5):711-718. PMID: 28003179.
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    25. Drake RR, Powers TW, Jones EE, Bruner E, Mehta AS, Angel PM. MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging of N-Linked Glycans in Cancer Tissues. Adv Cancer Res. 2017; 134:85-116. PMID: 28110657.
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    26. Reatini BS, Ensink E, Liau B, Sinha JY, Powers TW, Partyka K, Bern M, Brand RE, Rudd PM, Kletter D, Drake R, Haab BB. Characterizing Protein Glycosylation through On-Chip Glycan Modification and Probing. Anal Chem. 2016 12 06; 88(23):11584-11592. PMID: 27809484.
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    27. Heijs B, Holst S, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, van Pelt GW, de Ru AH, van Veelen PA, Drake RR, Mehta AS, Mesker WE, Tollenaar RA, Bovée JV, Wuhrer M, McDonnell LA. Multimodal Mass Spectrometry Imaging of N-Glycans and Proteins from the Same Tissue Section. Anal Chem. 2016 08 02; 88(15):7745-53. PMID: 27373711.
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    28. Kim Y, Jeon J, Mejia S, Yao CQ, Ignatchenko V, Nyalwidhe JO, Gramolini AO, Lance RS, Troyer DA, Drake RR, Boutros PC, Semmes OJ, Kislinger T. Targeted proteomics identifies liquid-biopsy signatures for extracapsular prostate cancer. Nat Commun. 2016 06 28; 7:11906. PMID: 27350604.
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    29. Holst S, Heijs B, de Haan N, van Zeijl RJ, Briaire-de Bruijn IH, van Pelt GW, Mehta AS, Angel PM, Mesker WE, Tollenaar RA, Drake RR, Bovée JV, McDonnell LA, Wuhrer M. Linkage-Specific in Situ Sialic Acid Derivatization for N-Glycan Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues. Anal Chem. 2016 06 07; 88(11):5904-13. PMID: 27145236.
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    30. Neely BA, Wilkins CE, Marlow LA, Malyarenko D, Kim Y, Ignatchenko A, Sasinowska H, Sasinowski M, Nyalwidhe JO, Kislinger T, Copland JA, Drake RR. Proteotranscriptomic Analysis Reveals Stage Specific Changes in the Molecular Landscape of Clear-Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0154074. PMID: 27128972.
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    31. Mercer KE, Pulliam C, Hennings L, Lai K, Cleves M, Jones E, Drake RR, Ronis M. Soy Protein Isolate Protects Against Ethanol-Mediated Tumor Progression in Diethylnitrosamine-Treated Male Mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 06; 9(6):466-75. PMID: 27006377.
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    32. Vaughn AA, Drake RR, Haydock S. College student mental health and quality of workplace relationships. J Am Coll Health. 2016; 64(1):26-37. PMID: 26151646.
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    33. Yang L, Dutta SM, Troyer DA, Lin JB, Lance RA, Nyalwidhe JO, Drake RR, Semmes OJ. Dysregulated expression of cell surface glycoprotein CDCP1 in prostate cancer. Oncotarget. 2015 Dec 22; 6(41):43743-58. PMID: 26497208.
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    34. Sundararaj KP, Thiyagarajan T, Molano I, Basher F, Powers TW, Drake RR, Nowling TK. FLI1 Levels Impact CXCR3 Expression and Renal Infiltration of T Cells and Renal Glycosphingolipid Metabolism in the MRL/lpr Lupus Mouse Strain. J Immunol. 2015 Dec 15; 195(12):5551-60. PMID: 26538397.
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    35. Jones EE, Gao P, Smith CD, Norris JS, Drake RR. Tissue biomarkers of drug efficacy: case studies using a MALDI-MSI workflow. Bioanalysis. 2015; 7(20):2611-9. PMID: 26505686.
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    36. Venant H, Rahmaniyan M, Jones EE, Lu P, Lilly MB, Garrett-Mayer E, Drake RR, Kraveka JM, Smith CD, Voelkel-Johnson C. The Sphingosine Kinase 2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Reduces the Growth of Prostate Cancer Cells and Results in Accumulation of Dihydroceramides In Vitro and In Vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015 Dec; 14(12):2744-52. PMID: 26494858.
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    37. Powers TW, Holst S, Wuhrer M, Mehta AS, Drake RR. Two-Dimensional N-Glycan Distribution Mapping of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues by MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry. Biomolecules. 2015 Oct 15; 5(4):2554-72. PMID: 26501333.
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    38. Pallitto P, Ablonczy Z, Jones EE, Drake RR, Koutalos Y, Crouch RK, Donello J, Herrmann J. A2E and lipofuscin distributions in macaque retinal pigment epithelium are similar to human. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2015 Oct; 14(10):1888-95. PMID: 26223373.
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    39. Drake RR, Jones EE, Powers TW, Nyalwidhe JO. Altered glycosylation in prostate cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2015; 126:345-82. PMID: 25727153.
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    40. Drake RR. Glycosylation and cancer: moving glycomics to the forefront. Adv Cancer Res. 2015; 126:1-10. PMID: 25727144.
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    41. Drake RR, Ball L. Unique to this volume is the subsequent focus of individual chapters on what is known about glycosylation in relation to specific organ sites of cancer. Preface. Adv Cancer Res. 2015; 126:xiii-xiv. PMID: 25727154.
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    42. Simpkins F, Drake R, Escobar PF, Nutter B, Rasool N, Rose PG. A phase II trial of paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab in advanced and recurrent endometrial carcinoma (EMCA). Gynecol Oncol. 2015 Feb; 136(2):240-5. PMID: 25485782.
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    43. Rachidi S, Sun S, Wu BX, Jones E, Drake RR, Ogretmen B, Cowart LA, Clarke CJ, Hannun YA, Chiosis G, Liu B, Li Z. Endoplasmic reticulum heat shock protein gp96 maintains liver homeostasis and promotes hepatocellular carcinogenesis. J Hepatol. 2015 Apr; 62(4):879-88. PMID: 25463537.
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    44. Nowling TK, Mather AR, Thiyagarajan T, Hernández-Corbacho MJ, Powers TW, Jones EE, Snider AJ, Oates JC, Drake RR, Siskind LJ. Renal glycosphingolipid metabolism is dysfunctional in lupus nephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jun; 26(6):1402-13. PMID: 25270066.
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    45. Zhang J, Ye ZW, Gao P, Reyes L, Jones EE, Branham-O'Connor M, Blumer JB, Drake RR, Manevich Y, Townsend DM, Tew KD. Glutathione S-transferase P influences redox and migration pathways in bone marrow. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e107478. PMID: 25216273.
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    46. Powers TW, Neely BA, Shao Y, Tang H, Troyer DA, Mehta AS, Haab BB, Drake RR. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of N-glycans in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded clinical tissue blocks and tissue microarrays. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106255. PMID: 25184632.
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    47. Jones EE, Dworski S, Canals D, Casas J, Fabrias G, Schoenling D, Levade T, Denlinger C, Hannun YA, Medin JA, Drake RR. On-tissue localization of ceramides and other sphingolipids by MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. Anal Chem. 2014 Aug 19; 86(16):8303-11. PMID: 25072097.
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    48. Von Roemeling CA, Marlow LA, Radisky DC, Rohl A, Larsen HE, Wei J, Sasinowska H, Zhu H, Drake R, Sasinowski M, Tun HW, Copland JA. Functional genomics identifies novel genes essential for clear cell renal cell carcinoma tumor cell proliferation and migration. Oncotarget. 2014 Jul 30; 5(14):5320-34. PMID: 24979721.
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    49. Medarova Z, Ghosh SK, Vangel M, Drake R, Moore A. Risk stratification of prostate cancer patients based on EPS-urine zinc content. Am J Cancer Res. 2014; 4(4):385-93. PMID: 25057441.
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    50. Baatz JE, Newton DA, Riemer EC, Denlinger CE, Jones EE, Drake RR, Spyropoulos DD. Cryopreservation of viable human lung tissue for versatile post-thaw analyses and culture. In Vivo. 2014 Jul-Aug; 28(4):411-23. PMID: 24982205.
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    51. Jones EE, Powers TW, Neely BA, Cazares LH, Troyer DA, Parker AS, Drake RR. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry profiling of proteins and lipids in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Proteomics. 2014 Apr; 14(7-8):924-35. PMID: 24497498.
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    52. Drake RR, Kislinger T. The proteomics of prostate cancer exosomes. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2014 Apr; 11(2):167-77. PMID: 24564711.
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    53. Lewis H, Lance R, Troyer D, Beydoun H, Hadley M, Orians J, Benzine T, Madric K, Semmes OJ, Drake R, Esquela-Kerscher A. miR-888 is an expressed prostatic secretions-derived microRNA that promotes prostate cell growth and migration. Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(2):227-39. PMID: 24200968.
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    54. Powers TW, Jones EE, Betesh LR, Romano PR, Gao P, Copland JA, Mehta AS, Drake RR. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry workflow for spatial profiling analysis of N-linked glycan expression in tissues. Anal Chem. 2013 Oct 15; 85(20):9799-806. PMID: 24050758.
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    55. Cheng JC, Bai A, Beckham TH, Marrison ST, Yount CL, Young K, Lu P, Bartlett AM, Wu BX, Keane BJ, Armeson KE, Marshall DT, Keane TE, Smith MT, Jones EE, Drake RR, Bielawska A, Norris JS, Liu X. Radiation-induced acid ceramidase confers prostate cancer resistance and tumor relapse. J Clin Invest. 2013 Oct; 123(10):4344-58. PMID: 24091326.
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    56. Nyalwidhe JO, Betesh LR, Powers TW, Jones EE, White KY, Burch TC, Brooks J, Watson MT, Lance RS, Troyer DA, Semmes OJ, Mehta A, Drake RR. Increased bisecting N-acetylglucosamine and decreased branched chain glycans of N-linked glycoproteins in expressed prostatic secretions associated with prostate cancer progression. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013 Oct; 7(9-10):677-89. PMID: 23775902.
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    57. Leymarie N, Griffin PJ, Jonscher K, Kolarich D, Orlando R, McComb M, Zaia J, Aguilan J, Alley WR, Altmann F, Ball LE, Basumallick L, Bazemore-Walker CR, Behnken H, Blank MA, Brown KJ, Bunz SC, Cairo CW, Cipollo JF, Daneshfar R, Desaire H, Drake RR, Go EP, Goldman R, Gruber C, Halim A, Hathout Y, Hensbergen PJ, Horn DM, Hurum D, Jabs W, Larson G, Ly M, Mann BF, Marx K, Mechref Y, Meyer B, Möginger U, Neusüß C, Nilsson J, Novotny MV, Nyalwidhe JO, Packer NH, Pompach P, Reiz B, Resemann A, Rohrer JS, Ruthenbeck A, Sanda M, Schulz JM, Schweiger-Hufnagel U, Sihlbom C, Song E, Staples GO, Suckau D, Tang H, Thaysen-Andersen M, Viner RI, An Y, Valmu L, Wada Y, Watson M, Windwarder M, Whittal R, Wuhrer M, Zhu Y, Zou C. Interlaboratory study on differential analysis of protein glycosylation by mass spectrometry: the ABRF glycoprotein research multi-institutional study 2012. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013 Oct; 12(10):2935-51. PMID: 23764502.
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    58. Roper SM, Zemskova M, Neely BA, Martin A, Gao P, Jones EE, Kraft AS, Drake RR. Targeted glycoprotein enrichment and identification in stromal cell secretomes using azido sugar metabolic labeling. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2013 Jun; 7(5-6):367-71. PMID: 23687070.
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    59. Principe S, Jones EE, Kim Y, Sinha A, Nyalwidhe JO, Brooks J, Semmes OJ, Troyer DA, Lance RS, Kislinger T, Drake RR. In-depth proteomic analyses of exosomes isolated from expressed prostatic secretions in urine. Proteomics. 2013 May; 13(10-11):1667-1671. PMID: 23533145.
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    60. Beckham TH, Lu P, Jones EE, Marrison T, Lewis CS, Cheng JC, Ramshesh VK, Beeson G, Beeson CC, Drake RR, Bielawska A, Bielawski J, Szulc ZM, Ogretmen B, Norris JS, Liu X. LCL124, a cationic analog of ceramide, selectively induces pancreatic cancer cell death by accumulating in mitochondria. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013 Jan; 344(1):167-78. PMID: 23086228.
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    61. Kim Y, Ignatchenko V, Yao CQ, Kalatskaya I, Nyalwidhe JO, Lance RS, Gramolini AO, Troyer DA, Stein LD, Boutros PC, Medin JA, Semmes OJ, Drake RR, Kislinger T. Identification of differentially expressed proteins in direct expressed prostatic secretions of men with organ-confined versus extracapsular prostate cancer. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Dec; 11(12):1870-84. PMID: 22986220.
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    62. Downing J, Birtar D, Chambers L, Gelb B, Drake R, Kiman R. Children's palliative care: a global concern. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2012 Mar; 18(3):109-14. PMID: 22584310.
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    63. Principe S, Kim Y, Fontana S, Ignatchenko V, Nyalwidhe JO, Lance RS, Troyer DA, Alessandro R, Semmes OJ, Kislinger T, Drake RR, Medin JA. Identification of prostate-enriched proteins by in-depth proteomic analyses of expressed prostatic secretions in urine. J Proteome Res. 2012 Apr 06; 11(4):2386-96. PMID: 22339264.
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    64. Hair PS, Wagner SM, Friederich PT, Drake RR, Nyalwidhe JO, Cunnion KM. Complement regulator C4BP binds to Staphylococcus aureus and decreases opsonization. Mol Immunol. 2012 Apr; 50(4):253-61. PMID: 22333221.
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    65. Boggs SR, Cazares LH, Drake R. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus USA300 protein signature using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Med Microbiol. 2012 May; 61(Pt 5):640-4. PMID: 22322338.
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    66. Drake RR, Boggs SR, Drake SK. Pathogen identifi cation using mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J Mass Spectrom. 2011 Dec; 46(12):1. PMID: 22223408.
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    67. Drake RR, Boggs SR, Drake SK. Pathogen identification using mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory. J Mass Spectrom. 2011 Dec; 46(12):1223-32. PMID: 22223412.
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    68. Lance RS, Drake RR, Troyer DA. Multiple recognition assay reveals prostasomes as promising plasma biomarkers for prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2011 Sep; 11(9):1341-3. PMID: 21929308.
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    69. Dai C, Cazares LH, Wang L, Chu Y, Wang SL, Troyer DA, Semmes OJ, Drake RR, Wang B. Using boronolectin in MALDI-MS imaging for the histological analysis of cancer tissue expressing the sialyl Lewis X antigen. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 Oct 07; 47(37):10338-40. PMID: 21853197.
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    70. Cazares LH, Troyer DA, Wang B, Drake RR, Semmes OJ. MALDI tissue imaging: from biomarker discovery to clinical applications. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011 Jul; 401(1):17-27. PMID: 21541816.
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    71. Yang L, Nyalwidhe JO, Guo S, Drake RR, Semmes OJ. Targeted identification of metastasis-associated cell-surface sialoglycoproteins in prostate cancer. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011 Jun; 10(6):M110.007294. PMID: 21447706.
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    72. Drake RR, Cazares LH, Jones EE, Fuller TW, Semmes OJ, Laronga C. Challenges to developing proteomic-based breast cancer diagnostics. OMICS. 2011 May; 15(5):251-9. PMID: 21332380.
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    73. Gatlin CL, White KY, Tracy MB, Wilkins CE, Semmes OJ, Nyalwidhe JO, Drake RR, Malyarenko DI. Enhancement in MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the low molecular weight human serum proteome. J Mass Spectrom. 2011 Jan; 46(1):85-9. PMID: 21190259.
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    74. Reniers RL, Corcoran R, Drake R, Shryane NM, Völlm BA. The QCAE: a Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy. J Pers Assess. 2011 Jan; 93(1):84-95. PMID: 21184334.
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    75. Drake RR, Elschenbroich S, Lopez-Perez O, Kim Y, Ignatchenko V, Ignatchenko A, Nyalwidhe JO, Basu G, Wilkins CE, Gjurich B, Lance RS, Semmes OJ, Medin JA, Kislinger T. In-depth proteomic analyses of direct expressed prostatic secretions. J Proteome Res. 2010 May 07; 9(5):2109-16. PMID: 20334419.
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    76. Britten RA, Mitchell S, Johnson AM, Singletary SJ, Keeney SK, Nyalwidhe JO, Karbassi ID, Lonart G, Sanford LD, Drake RR. The identification of serum biomarkers of high-let radiation exposure and biological sequelae. Health Phys. 2010 Feb; 98(2):196-203. PMID: 20065683.
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    77. Drake RR. Glyco-Forum section Obituary: Alan D. Elbein (1933-2009). Glycobiology. 2010 Jan; 20(4):404-5. PMID: 20124191.
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    78. Rauen KA, Schoyer L, McCormick F, Lin AE, Allanson JE, Stevenson DA, Gripp KW, Neri G, Carey JC, Legius E, Tartaglia M, Schubbert S, Roberts AE, Gelb BD, Shannon K, Gutmann DH, McMahon M, Guerra C, Fagin JA, Yu B, Aoki Y, Neel BG, Balmain A, Drake RR, Nolan GP, Zenker M, Bollag G, Sebolt-Leopold J, Gibbs JB, Silva AJ, Patton EE, Viskochil DH, Kieran MW, Korf BR, Hagerman RJ, Packer RJ, Melese T. Proceedings from the 2009 genetic syndromes of the Ras/MAPK pathway: From bedside to bench and back. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Jan; 152A(1):4-24. PMID: 20014119.
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    79. Cazares LH, Drake RR, Esquela-Kirscher A, Lance RS, Semmes OJ, Troyer DA. Molecular pathology of prostate cancer. Cancer Biomark. 2010; 9(1-6):441-59. PMID: 22112489.
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    80. Mellmann A, Bimet F, Bizet C, Borovskaya AD, Drake RR, Eigner U, Fahr AM, He Y, Ilina EN, Kostrzewa M, Maier T, Mancinelli L, Moussaoui W, Prévost G, Putignani L, Seachord CL, Tang YW, Harmsen D. High interlaboratory reproducibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry-based species identification of nonfermenting bacteria. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Nov; 47(11):3732-4. PMID: 19776231.
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    81. Karbassi ID, Nyalwidhe JO, Wilkins CE, Cazares LH, Lance RS, Semmes OJ, Drake RR. Proteomic expression profiling and identification of serum proteins using immobilized trypsin beads with MALDI-TOF/TOF. J Proteome Res. 2009 Sep; 8(9):4182-92. PMID: 19603828.
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    82. Cazares LH, Troyer D, Mendrinos S, Lance RA, Nyalwidhe JO, Beydoun HA, Clements MA, Drake RR, Semmes OJ. Imaging mass spectrometry of a specific fragment of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 2 discriminates cancer from uninvolved prostate tissue. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Sep 01; 15(17):5541-51. PMID: 19690195.
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    83. Jing Y, Shaheen E, Drake RR, Chen N, Gravenstein S, Deng Y. Aging is associated with a numerical and functional decline in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, whereas myeloid dendritic cells are relatively unaltered in human peripheral blood. Hum Immunol. 2009 Oct; 70(10):777-84. PMID: 19596035.
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    84. Schaub NP, Jones KJ, Nyalwidhe JO, Cazares LH, Karbassi ID, Semmes OJ, Feliberti EC, Perry RR, Drake RR. Serum proteomic biomarker discovery reflective of stage and obesity in breast cancer patients. J Am Coll Surg. 2009 May; 208(5):970-8; discussion 978-80. PMID: 19476873.
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    85. White KY, Rodemich L, Nyalwidhe JO, Comunale MA, Clements MA, Lance RS, Schellhammer PF, Mehta AS, Semmes OJ, Drake RR. Glycomic characterization of prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase in prostate cancer and benign disease seminal plasma fluids. J Proteome Res. 2009 Feb; 8(2):620-30. PMID: 19128049.
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    86. Drake RR, White KY, Fuller TW, Igwe E, Clements MA, Nyalwidhe JO, Given RW, Lance RS, Semmes OJ. Clinical collection and protein properties of expressed prostatic secretions as a source for biomarkers of prostatic disease. J Proteomics. 2009 Aug 20; 72(6):907-17. PMID: 19457353.
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    87. Tracy MB, Chen H, Weaver DM, Malyarenko DI, Sasinowski M, Cazares LH, Drake RR, Semmes OJ, Tracy ER, Cooke WE. Precision enhancement of MALDI-TOF MS using high resolution peak detection and label-free alignment. Proteomics. 2008 Apr; 8(8):1530-8. PMID: 18340636.
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    88. Freed GL, Cazares LH, Fichandler CE, Fuller TW, Sawyer CA, Stack BC, Schraff S, Semmes OJ, Wadsworth JT, Drake RR. Differential capture of serum proteins for expression profiling and biomarker discovery in pre- and posttreatment head and neck cancer samples. Laryngoscope. 2008 Jan; 118(1):61-8. PMID: 18043497.
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    89. Laronga C, Drake RR. Proteomic approach to breast cancer. Cancer Control. 2007 Oct; 14(4):360-8. PMID: 17914336.
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    90. Drake RR, Cazares L, Semmes OJ. Mining the low molecular weight proteome of blood. Proteomics Clin Appl. 2007 Aug; 1(8):758-68. PMID: 21136732.
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    91. Shin S, Cazares L, Schneider H, Mitchell S, Laronga C, Semmes OJ, Perry RR, Drake RR. Serum biomarkers to differentiate benign and malignant mammographic lesions. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 May; 204(5):1065-71; discussion 1071-3. PMID: 17481542.
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    92. Drake RR, Schwegler EE, Malik G, Diaz J, Block T, Mehta A, Semmes OJ. Lectin capture strategies combined with mass spectrometry for the discovery of serum glycoprotein biomarkers. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006 Oct; 5(10):1957-67. PMID: 16760258.
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    93. Xiong Y, Bernardi D, Bratton S, Ward MD, Battaglia E, Finel M, Drake RR, Radominska-Pandya A. Phenylalanine 90 and 93 are localized within the phenol binding site of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A10 as determined by photoaffinity labeling, mass spectrometry, and site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 2006 Feb 21; 45(7):2322-32. PMID: 16475821.
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    94. Malyarenko DI, Cooke WE, Tracy ER, Drake RR, Shin S, Semmes OJ, Sasinowski M, Manos DM. Resampling and deconvolution of linear time-of-flight records for enhanced protein profiling. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006; 20(11):1670-8. PMID: 16637003.
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    95. Li AJ, Giuntoli RL, Drake R, Byun SY, Rojas F, Barbuto D, Klipfel N, Edmonds P, Miller DS, Karlan BY. Ovarian preservation in stage I low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec; 106(6):1304-8. PMID: 16319256.
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    96. Britten RA, Hardy C, Vlahou A, Gregory B, Giri PS, Drake R. Identification of reproducible low mass SELDI protein profiles specific to cisplatin resistance in human ovarian cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2005 Nov; 14(5):1323-30. PMID: 16211304.
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    97. Drake RR, Deng Y, Schwegler EE, Gravenstein S. Proteomics for biodefense applications: progress and opportunities. Expert Rev Proteomics. 2005 Apr; 2(2):203-13. PMID: 15892565.
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    98. Schwegler EE, Cazares L, Steel LF, Adam BL, Johnson DA, Semmes OJ, Block TM, Marrero JA, Drake RR. SELDI-TOF MS profiling of serum for detection of the progression of chronic hepatitis C to hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2005 Mar; 41(3):634-42. PMID: 15726646.
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    99. Drake RR, Cazare LH, Semmes OJ, Wadsworth JT. Serum, salivary and tissue proteomics for discovery of biomarkers for head and neck cancers. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2005 Jan; 5(1):93-100. PMID: 15723595.
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    100. Becker S, Cazares LH, Watson P, Lynch H, Semmes OJ, Drake RR, Laronga C. Surfaced-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) differentiation of serum protein profiles of BRCA-1 and sporadic breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2004 Oct; 11(10):907-14. PMID: 15383419.
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    101. Pusztai L, Gregory BW, Baggerly KA, Peng B, Koomen J, Kuerer HM, Esteva FJ, Symmans WF, Wagner P, Hortobagyi GN, Laronga C, Semmes OJ, Wright GL, Drake RR, Vlahou A. Pharmacoproteomic analysis of prechemotherapy and postchemotherapy plasma samples from patients receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy for breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2004 May 01; 100(9):1814-22. PMID: 15112261.
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    102. Comunale MA, Mattu TS, Lowman MA, Evans AA, London WT, Semmes OJ, Ward M, Drake R, Romano PR, Steel LF, Block TM, Mehta A. Comparative proteomic analysis of de-N-glycosylated serum from hepatitis B carriers reveals polypeptides that correlate with disease status. Proteomics. 2004 Mar; 4(3):826-38. PMID: 14997503.
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    103. Laronga C, Becker S, Watson P, Gregory B, Cazares L, Lynch H, Perry RR, Wright GL, Drake RR, Semmes OJ. SELDI-TOF serum profiling for prognostic and diagnostic classification of breast cancers. Dis Markers. 2003-2004; 19(4-5):229-38. PMID: 15258337.
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    104. Mercer KE, Ahn CE, Coke A, Compadre CM, Drake RR. Mutation of herpesvirus thymidine kinase to generate ganciclovir-specific kinases for use in cancer gene therapies. Protein Eng. 2002 Nov; 15(11):903-11. PMID: 12538910.
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    105. Drake RR, Pitlyk K, McMasters RA, Mercer KE, Young H, Moyer MP. Connexin-independent ganciclovir-mediated killing conferred on bystander effect-resistant cell lines by a herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase-expressing colon cell line. Mol Ther. 2000 Nov; 2(5):515-23. PMID: 11082325.
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    106. Hinds TA, Compadre C, Hurlburt BK, Drake RR. Conservative mutations of glutamine-125 in herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase result in a ganciclovir kinase with minimal deoxypyrimidine kinase activities. Biochemistry. 2000 Apr 11; 39(14):4105-11. PMID: 10747801.
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    107. McMasters RA, Wilbert TN, Jones KE, Pitlyk K, Saylors RL, Moyer MP, Chambers TC, Drake RR. Two-drug combinations that increase apoptosis and modulate bak and bcl-X(L) expression in human colon tumor cell lines transduced with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase. Cancer Gene Ther. 2000 Apr; 7(4):563-73. PMID: 10811474.
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    108. Kim YG, Bi W, Feliciano ES, Drake RR, Stambrook PJ. Ganciclovir-mediated cell killing and bystander effect is enhanced in cells with two copies of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. Cancer Gene Ther. 2000 Feb; 7(2):240-6. PMID: 10770632.
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    109. Wang-Gillam A, Pastuszak I, Stewart M, Drake RR, Elbein AD. Identification and modification of the uridine-binding site of the UDP-GalNAc (GlcNAc) pyrophosphorylase. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 14; 275(2):1433-8. PMID: 10625695.
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    110. Drake RR, Wilbert TN, Hinds TA, Gilbert KM. Differential ganciclovir-mediated cell killing by glutamine 125 mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 24; 274(52):37186-92. PMID: 10601281.
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    111. Little JM, Lester R, Kuipers F, Vonk R, Mackenzie PI, Drake RR, Frame L, Radominska-Pandya A. Variability of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. Acta Biochim Pol. 1999; 46(2):351-63. PMID: 10547036.
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    112. Pastuszak I, Ketchum C, Hermanson G, Sjoberg EJ, Drake R, Elbein AD. GDP-L-fucose pyrophosphorylase. Purification, cDNA cloning, and properties of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1998 Nov 13; 273(46):30165-74. PMID: 9804772.
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    113. McMasters RA, Saylors RL, Jones KE, Hendrix ME, Moyer MP, Drake RR. Lack of bystander killing in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase-transduced colon cell lines due to deficient connexin43 gap junction formation. Hum Gene Ther. 1998 Oct 10; 9(15):2253-61. PMID: 9794209.
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    114. Sunthankar P, Pastuszak I, Rooke A, Elbein AD, van de Rijn I, Canfield WM, Drake RR. Synthesis of 5-azido-UDP-N-acetylhexosamine photoaffinity analogs and radiolabeled UDP-N-acetylhexosamines. Anal Biochem. 1998 May 01; 258(2):195-201. PMID: 9570829.
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    115. Drake RR, Neamati N, Hong H, Pilon AA, Sunthankar P, Hume SD, Milne GW, Pommier Y. Identification of a nucleotide binding site in HIV-1 integrase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14; 95(8):4170-5. PMID: 9539708.
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    116. DeAngelis PL, Jing W, Drake RR, Achyuthan AM. Identification and molecular cloning of a unique hyaluronan synthase from Pasteurella multocida. J Biol Chem. 1998 Apr 03; 273(14):8454-8. PMID: 9525958.
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    117. Park SH, Pastuszak I, Drake R, Elbein AD. Purification to apparent homogeneity and properties of pig kidney L-fucose kinase. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 06; 273(10):5685-91. PMID: 9488699.
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    118. Zeng Y, Bannon G, Thomas VH, Rice K, Drake R, Elbein A. Purification and specificity of beta1,2-xylosyltransferase, an enzyme that contributes to the allergenicity of some plant proteins. J Biol Chem. 1997 Dec 12; 272(50):31340-7. PMID: 9395463.
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    119. Drake RR, McMasters R, Krisa S, Hume SD, Rechtin TM, Saylors RL, Chiang Y, Govindarajan R, Munshi NC. Metabolism and activities of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine in herpesvirus thymidine kinase transduced T-lymphocytes. Antiviral Res. 1997 Aug; 35(3):177-85. PMID: 9298757.
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    120. Sugumaran G, Katsman M, Sunthankar P, Drake RR. Biosynthesis of chondroitin sulfate. Purification of glucuronosyl transferase II and use of photoaffinity labeling for characterization of the enzyme as an 80-kDa protein. J Biol Chem. 1997 May 30; 272(22):14399-403. PMID: 9162078.
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    121. Battaglia E, Nowell S, Drake RR, Magdalou J, Fournel-Gigleux S, Senay C, Radominska A. Photoaffinity labeling studies of the human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT1*6, with 5-azido-UDP-glucuronic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997 Apr; 25(4):406-11. PMID: 9107538.
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    122. Munshi NC, Govindarajan R, Drake R, Ding LM, Iyer R, Saylors R, Kornbluth J, Marcus S, Chiang Y, Ennist D, Kwak L, Reynolds C, Tricot G, Barlogie B. Thymidine kinase (TK) gene-transduced human lymphocytes can be highly purified, remain fully functional, and are killed efficiently with ganciclovir. Blood. 1997 Feb 15; 89(4):1334-40. PMID: 9028956.
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    123. Bao M, Elmendorf BJ, Booth JL, Drake RR, Canfield WM. Bovine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:lysosomal-enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. II. Enzymatic characterization and identification of the catalytic subunit. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 06; 271(49):31446-51. PMID: 8940156.
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    124. Battaglia E, Nowell S, Drake RR, Mizeracka M, Berg CL, Magdalou J, Fournel-Gigleux S, Gollan JL, Lester R, Radominska A. Two kinetically-distinct components of UDP-glucuronic acid transport in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Sep 04; 1283(2):223-31. PMID: 8809103.
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    125. Pastuszak I, Drake R, Elbein AD. Kidney N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-1-phosphate kinase, a new pathway of GalNAc activation. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 23; 271(34):20776-82. PMID: 8702831.
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    126. Zeng Y, Shabalin Y, Szumilo T, Pastuszak I, Drake RR, Elbein AD. Synthesis of aryl azide derivatives of UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-GalNAc and their use for the affinity labeling of glycosyltransferases and the UDP-HexNAc pyrophosphorylase. Anal Biochem. 1996 Jul 15; 239(1):99-106. PMID: 8660631.
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    127. Black ME, Rechtin TM, Drake RR. Effect on substrate binding of an alteration at the conserved aspartic acid-162 in herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase. J Gen Virol. 1996 Jul; 77 ( Pt 7):1521-7. PMID: 8757995.
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    128. Pan YT, Drake RR, Elbein AD. Trehalose-P synthase of mycobacteria: its substrate specificity is affected by polyanions. Glycobiology. 1996 Jun; 6(4):453-61. PMID: 8842710.
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    129. Szumilo T, Zeng Y, Pastuszak I, Drake R, Szumilo H, Elbein AD. Purification to homogeneity and properties of UDP-GlcNAc (GalNAc) pyrophosphorylase. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 31; 271(22):13147-54. PMID: 8662687.
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    130. Rechtin TM, Black ME, Drake RR. Proteolytic mapping of the thymidine/thymidylate binding site of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase: a general photoaffinity labeling method for identifying active-site peptides. Anal Biochem. 1996 May 15; 237(1):135-40. PMID: 8660548.
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    131. Radominska A, Drake RR, Zhu X, Veronese ME, Little JM, Nowell S, McManus ME, Lester R, Falany CN. Photoaffinity labeling of human recombinant sulfotransferases with 2-azidoadenosine 3',5'-[5'-32P]bisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 1996 Feb 09; 271(6):3195-9. PMID: 8621720.
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    132. Sugumaran G, Katsman M, Drake RR. Purification, photoaffinity labeling, and characterization of a single enzyme for 6-sulfation of both chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. J Biol Chem. 1995 Sep 22; 270(38):22483-7. PMID: 7673238.
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    133. Mao F, Rechtin TM, Jones R, Cantu AA, Anderson LS, Radominska A, Moyer MP, Drake RR. Synthesis of a photoaffinity analog of 3'-azidothymidine, 5-azido-3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine. Interactions with herpesvirus thymidine kinase and cellular enzymes. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 09; 270(23):13660-4. PMID: 7775417.
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    134. Little JM, Drake RR, Vonk R, Kuipers F, Lester R, Radominska A. Characterization of human liver microsomal UDP-glycosyltransferases using photoaffinity analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Jun; 273(3):1551-9. PMID: 7791131.
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    135. Rechtin TM, Black ME, Mao F, Lewis ML, Drake RR. Purification and photoaffinity labeling of herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1995 Mar 31; 270(13):7055-60. PMID: 7706243.
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    136. Batchu RB, Miles DA, Rechtin TM, Drake RR, Hermonat PL. Cloning, expression and purification of full length Rep78 of adeno-associated virus as a fusion protein with maltose binding protein in Escherichia coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Mar 17; 208(2):714-20. PMID: 7695627.
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    137. Kyossev ZN, Drake RR, Kyosseva SV, Elbein AD. Synthesis of a new photoaffinity probe, 5-azido-[32P]UDPxylose, by UDPglucuronate carboxylyase from wheat germ. Eur J Biochem. 1995 Feb 15; 228(1):109-12. PMID: 7882990.
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    138. Battaglia E, Elass A, Drake RR, Paul P, Treat S, Magdalou J, Fournel-Gigleux S, Siest G, Vergoten G, Lester R, et al. Characterization of a new class of inhibitors of the recombinant human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UGT1*6. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jan 18; 1243(1):9-14. PMID: 7827113.
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    139. Radominska A, Berg C, Treat S, Little JM, Lester R, Gollan JL, Drake RR. Characterization of UDP-glucuronic acid transport in rat liver microsomal vesicles with photoaffinity analogs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 12; 1195(1):63-70. PMID: 7918567.
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    140. Radominska A, Paul P, Treat S, Towbin H, Pratt C, Little J, Magdalou J, Lester R, Drake R. Photoaffinity labeling for evaluation of uridinyl analogs as specific inhibitors of rat liver microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Apr 13; 1205(2):336-45. PMID: 8155717.
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    141. Radominska A, Drake RR. Synthesis and uses of azido-substituted nucleoside diphosphate sugar photoaffinity analogs. Methods Enzymol. 1994; 230:330-9. PMID: 8139506.
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    142. Pillot T, Ouzzine M, Fournel-Gigleux S, Lafaurie C, Radominska A, Lester R, Drake R, Treat S, Siest G, Magdalou J. Purification and characterization of a catalytically active human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993 Oct 15; 196(1):473-9. PMID: 8216331.
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    143. Szumilo T, Drake RR, York JL, Elbein AD. GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase. Purification to homogeneity, properties, and utilization to prepare photoaffinity analogs. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25; 268(24):17943-50. PMID: 7688733.
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    144. Radominska A, Little J, Pyrek JS, Drake RR, Igari Y, Fournel-Gigleux S, Magdalou J, Burchell B, Elbein AD, Siest G, et al. A novel UDP-Glc-specific glucosyltransferase catalyzing the biosynthesis of 6-O-glucosides of bile acids in human liver microsomes. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jul 15; 268(20):15127-35. PMID: 8325887.
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    145. Li L, Drake RR, Clement S, Brown RM. [beta]-Glucan Synthesis in the Cotton Fiber (III. Identification of UDP-Glucose-Binding Subunits of [beta]-Glucan Synthases by Photoaffinity Labeling with [[beta]-32P]5[prime]-N3-UDP-Glucose. Plant Physiol. 1993 Apr; 101(4):1149-1156. PMID: 12231766.
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    146. van de Rijn I, Drake RR. Analysis of the streptococcal hyaluronic acid synthase complex using the photoaffinity probe 5-azido-UDP-glucuronic acid. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 05; 267(34):24302-6. PMID: 1447180.
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    147. Drake RR, Elbein AD. Photoaffinity labelling of glycosyltransferases. Glycobiology. 1992 Aug; 2(4):279-84. PMID: 1421749.
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    148. Drake RR, Igari Y, Lester R, Elbein AD, Radominska A. Application of 5-azido-UDP-glucose and 5-azido-UDP-glucuronic acid photoaffinity probes for the determination of the active site orientation of microsomal UDP-glucosyltransferases and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 05; 267(16):11360-5. PMID: 1534561.
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    149. Drake RR, Slama JT, Wall KA, Abramova M, D'Souza C, Elbein AD, Crocker PJ, Watt DS. Application of an N-(4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyl)tyrosine-substituted peptide as a heterobifunctional cross-linking agent in a study of protein O-glycosylation in yeast. Bioconjug Chem. 1992 Jan-Feb; 3(1):69-73. PMID: 1616952.
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    150. Drake RR, Zimniak P, Haley BE, Lester R, Elbein AD, Radominska A. Synthesis and characterization of 5-azido-UDP-glucuronic acid. A new photoaffinity probe for UDP-glucuronic acid-utilizing proteins. J Biol Chem. 1991 Dec 05; 266(34):23257-60. PMID: 1744121.
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    151. Drake RR, Kaushal GP, Pastuszak I, Elbein AD. Partial Purification, Photoaffinity Labeling, and Properties of Mung Bean UDP-Glucose:Dolicholphosphate Glucosyltransferase. Plant Physiol. 1991 Sep; 97(1):396-401. PMID: 16668398.
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    152. Salvucci ME, Drake RR, Haley BE. Purification and photoaffinity labeling of sucrose phosphate synthase from spinach leaves. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990 Sep; 281(2):212-8. PMID: 2144103.
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    153. Marchase RB, Richardson KL, Srisomsap C, Drake RR, Haley BE. Resolution of phosphoglucomatase and the 62-kDA acceptor for the glucosylphosphotransferase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1990 Jul; 280(1):122-9. PMID: 2162150.
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    154. Palamarczyk G, Drake R, Haley B, Lennarz WJ. Evidence that the synthesis of glucosylphosphodolichol in yeast involves a 35-kDa membrane protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr; 87(7):2666-70. PMID: 2138781.
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    155. Lin FC, Brown RM, Drake RR, Haley BE. Identification of the uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose (UDP-Glc) binding subunit of cellulose synthase in Acetobacter xylinum using the photoaffinity probe 5-azido-UDP-Glc. J Biol Chem. 1990 Mar 25; 265(9):4782-4. PMID: 2138620.
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    156. Frost DJ, Read SM, Drake RR, Haley BE, Wasserman BP. Identification of the UDP-glucose-binding polypeptide of callose synthase from Beta vulgaris L. by photoaffinity labeling with 5-azido-UDP-glucose. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 05; 265(4):2162-7. PMID: 2137125.
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    157. Drake RR, Evans RK, Wolf MJ, Haley BE. Synthesis and properties of 5-azido-UDP-glucose. Development of photoaffinity probes for nucleotide diphosphate sugar binding sites. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jul 15; 264(20):11928-33. PMID: 2745423.
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    158. Lawson SG, Mason TL, Sabin RD, Sloan ME, Drake RR, Haley BE, Wasserman BP. UDP-Glucose: (1,3)-beta-Glucan Synthase from Daucus carota L. : Characterization, Photoaffinity Labeling, and Solubilization. Plant Physiol. 1989 May; 90(1):101-8. PMID: 16666718.
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