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Peter W Kalivas

TitleChair, Department of Neuroscience
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentNeuroscience
AddressP.O. Box MSC 510
DDB 204
Drug Discovery Building - 70 President St.
Phone843-876-2340
Fax843-876-1220
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    Collapse Overview 
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    The Kalivas lab studies neuroplasticity underlying the development of addiction to drugs of abuse, as well as the learning and memory deficits associated with impoverished rearing environments. Research is at the level of protein biochemistry, neural circuitry and behavioral modeling. The current focus for both addiction and isolation rearing is in adaptations in excitatory neurotransmission. In collaboration with electrophysiologists in the department (Drs Lavin, Seamans, Woodward) we are elucidating the fundamental role of extracellular glutamate homeostatis in regulating neurotransmission and neuroplasticity. This has led to preclinical and clinical evaluations of specific proteins as targets in treating addiction, including metabotropic glutamate receptors and the cystine-glutamate exchanger.

    Brain circuitry underlying addiction: Long-term cellular changes in the glutamate neurons projecting from the prefrontal cortex to the basal ganglia are critical mediators of addictive behaviors. This includes changes in glutamate homeostasis and G-protein signaling, and involves proteins such as Homer, xCT, AGS3 and mGluRs.


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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Roberts-Wolfe DJ, Heinsbroek JA, Spencer SM, Bobadilla AC, Smith ACW, Gipson CD, Kalivas PW. Transient synaptic potentiation in nucleus accumbens shell during refraining from cocaine seeking. Addict Biol. 2019 May 06; e12759. PMID: 31062493.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Garcia-Keller C, Neuhofer D, Bobadilla AC, Spencer S, Chioma VC, Monforton C, Kalivas PW. Extracellular Matrix Signaling Through ß3 Integrin Mediates Cocaine Cue-Induced Transient Synaptic Plasticity and Relapse. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 03. PMID: 31126696.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Siemsen BM, Reichel CM, Leong KC, Garcia-Keller C, Gipson CD, Spencer S, McFaddin JA, Hooker KN, Kalivas PW, Scofield MD. Effects of Methamphetamine Self-Administration and Extinction on Astrocyte Structure and Function in the Nucleus Accumbens Core. Neuroscience. 2019 05 15; 406:528-541. PMID: 30926546.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Pardo-Garcia TR, Garcia-Keller C, Penaloza T, Richie CT, Pickel J, Hope BT, Harvey BK, Kalivas PW, Heinsbroek JA. Ventral Pallidum Is the Primary Target for Accumbens D1 Projections Driving Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci. 2019 Mar 13; 39(11):2041-2051. PMID: 30622165.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Kalivas PW. Deconstructing and Reconstructing the Dichotomy That Is Dopamine Receptor-1- and Dopamine Receptor-2-Expressing Neurons. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Dec 15; 84(12):862-864. PMID: 30466506.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Kalivas PW, Spencer S. Reply to: N-Acetylcysteine in Treatment of Substance Use Disorders. Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 01; 85(11):e61. PMID: 30563761.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Womersley JS, Townsend DM, Kalivas PW, Uys JD. Targeting redox regulation to treat substance use disorder using N-acetylcysteine. Eur J Neurosci. 2018 Aug 24. PMID: 30144182.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Roberts-Wolfe D, Bobadilla AC, Heinsbroek JA, Neuhofer D, Kalivas PW. Drug Refraining and Seeking Potentiate Synapses on Distinct Populations of Accumbens Medium Spiny Neurons. J Neurosci. 2018 Aug 08; 38(32):7100-7107. PMID: 29976626.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bobadilla AC, Garcia-Keller C, Chareunsouk V, Hyde J, Camacho DM, Heinsbroek JA, Kalivas PW. Accumbens brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transmission inhibits cocaine seeking. Addict Biol. 2018 Jun 11. PMID: 29890020.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Spencer S, Neuhofer D, Chioma VC, Garcia-Keller C, Schwartz DJ, Allen N, Scofield MD, Ortiz-Ithier T, Kalivas PW. A Model of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Self-administration and Reinstatement That Alters Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 15; 84(8):601-610. PMID: 29861097.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Parrilla-Carrero J, Buchta WC, Goswamee P, Culver O, McKendrick G, Harlan B, Moutal A, Penrod R, Lauer A, Ramakrishnan V, Khanna R, Kalivas P, Riegel AC. Restoration of Kv7 Channel-Mediated Inhibition Reduces Cued-Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci. 2018 Apr 25; 38(17):4212-4229. PMID: 29636392.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Neuhofer D, Kalivas P. Metaplasticity at the addicted tetrapartite synapse: A common denominator of drug induced adaptations and potential treatment target for addiction. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2018 10; 154:97-111. PMID: 29428364.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Bobadilla AC, Heinsbroek JA, Gipson CD, Griffin WC, Fowler CD, Kenny PJ, Kalivas PW. Corticostriatal plasticity, neuronal ensembles, and regulation of drug-seeking behavior. Prog Brain Res. 2017; 235:93-112. PMID: 29054293.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Spencer S, Kalivas PW. Glutamate Transport: A New Bench to Bedside Mechanism for Treating Drug Abuse. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 10 01; 20(10):797-812. PMID: 28605494.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Taniguchi M, Carreira MB, Cooper YA, Bobadilla AC, Heinsbroek JA, Koike N, Larson EB, Balmuth EA, Hughes BW, Penrod RD, Kumar J, Smith LN, Guzman D, Takahashi JS, Kim TK, Kalivas PW, Self DW, Lin Y, Cowan CW. HDAC5 and Its Target Gene, Npas4, Function in the Nucleus Accumbens to Regulate Cocaine-Conditioned Behaviors. Neuron. 2017 Sep 27; 96(1):130-144.e6. PMID: 28957664.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bobadilla AC, Garcia-Keller C, Heinsbroek JA, Scofield MD, Chareunsouk V, Monforton C, Kalivas PW. Accumbens Mechanisms for Cued Sucrose Seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Nov; 42(12):2377-2386. PMID: 28726801.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Melis M, Frau R, Kalivas PW, Spencer S, Chioma V, Zamberletti E, Rubino T, Parolaro D. New vistas on cannabis use disorder. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Sep 15; 124:62-72. PMID: 28373077.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Smith ACW, Scofield MD, Heinsbroek JA, Gipson CD, Neuhofer D, Roberts-Wolfe DJ, Spencer S, Garcia-Keller C, Stankeviciute NM, Smith RJ, Allen NP, Lorang MR, Griffin WC, Boger HA, Kalivas PW. Accumbens nNOS Interneurons Regulate Cocaine Relapse. J Neurosci. 2017 01 25; 37(4):742-756. PMID: 28123012.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Heinsbroek JA, Neuhofer DN, Griffin WC, Siegel GS, Bobadilla AC, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. Loss of Plasticity in the D2-Accumbens Pallidal Pathway Promotes Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci. 2017 01 25; 37(4):757-767. PMID: 28123013.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. The Direct and Indirect Pathways of the Nucleus Accumbens are not What You Think. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 01; 42(1):369-370. PMID: 27909323.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Back SE, McCauley JL, Korte KJ, Gros DF, Leavitt V, Gray KM, Hamner MB, DeSantis SM, Malcolm R, Brady KT, Kalivas PW. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Nov; 77(11):e1439-e1446. PMID: 27736051.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Augur IF, Wyckoff AR, Aston-Jones G, Kalivas PW, Peters J. Chemogenetic Activation of an Extinction Neural Circuit Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking. J Neurosci. 2016 09 28; 36(39):10174-80. PMID: 27683912.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Spencer S, Garcia-Keller C, Roberts-Wolfe D, Heinsbroek JA, Mulvaney M, Sorrell A, Kalivas PW. Cocaine Use Reverses Striatal Plasticity Produced During Cocaine Seeking. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 04 01; 81(7):616-624. PMID: 27837917.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Scofield MD, Heinsbroek JA, Gipson CD, Kupchik YM, Spencer S, Smith AC, Roberts-Wolfe D, Kalivas PW. The Nucleus Accumbens: Mechanisms of Addiction across Drug Classes Reflect the Importance of Glutamate Homeostasis. Pharmacol Rev. 2016 07; 68(3):816-71. PMID: 27363441.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Spencer S, Scofield M, Kalivas PW. The good and bad news about glutamate in drug addiction. J Psychopharmacol. 2016 11; 30(11):1095-1098. PMID: 27353027.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Mulholland PJ, Chandler LJ, Kalivas PW. Signals from the Fourth Dimension Regulate Drug Relapse. Trends Neurosci. 2016 07; 39(7):472-485. PMID: 27173064.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Moussawi K, Kalivas PW, Lee JW. Abstinence From Drug Dependence After Bilateral Globus Pallidus Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 11 01; 80(9):e79-e80. PMID: 27311800.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Kalivas BC, Kalivas PW. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2016 Mar; 18(1):65-76. PMID: 27069381.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Scofield MD, Li H, Siemsen BM, Healey KL, Tran PK, Woronoff N, Boger HA, Kalivas PW, Reissner KJ. Cocaine Self-Administration and Extinction Leads to Reduced Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Expression and Morphometric Features of Astrocytes in the Nucleus Accumbens Core. Biol Psychiatry. 2016 08 01; 80(3):207-15. PMID: 26946381.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Brown RM, Kupchik YM, Spencer S, Garcia-Keller C, Spanswick DC, Lawrence AJ, Simonds SE, Schwartz DJ, Jordan KA, Jhou TC, Kalivas PW. Addiction-like Synaptic Impairments in Diet-Induced Obesity. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 05 01; 81(9):797-806. PMID: 26826876.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Garcia-Keller C, Kupchik YM, Gipson CD, Brown RM, Spencer S, Bollati F, Esparza MA, Roberts-Wolfe DJ, Heinsbroek JA, Bobadilla AC, Cancela LM, Kalivas PW. Glutamatergic mechanisms of comorbidity between acute stress and cocaine self-administration. Mol Psychiatry. 2016 08; 21(8):1063-9. PMID: 26821978.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Froeliger B, McConnell PA, Stankeviciute N, McClure EA, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. The effects of N-Acetylcysteine on frontostriatal resting-state functional connectivity, withdrawal symptoms and smoking abstinence: A double-blind, placebo-controlled fMRI pilot study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Nov 01; 156:234-242. PMID: 26454838.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kupchik YM, Brown RM, Heinsbroek JA, Lobo MK, Schwartz DJ, Kalivas PW. Coding the direct/indirect pathways by D1 and D2 receptors is not valid for accumbens projections. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 18(9):1230-2. PMID: 26214370.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Smith AC, Scofield MD, Kalivas PW. The tetrapartite synapse: Extracellular matrix remodeling contributes to corticoaccumbens plasticity underlying drug addiction. Brain Res. 2015 Dec 02; 1628(Pt A):29-39. PMID: 25838241.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Beckley JT, Randall PK, Smith RJ, Hughes BA, Kalivas PW, Woodward JJ. Phenotype-dependent inhibition of glutamatergic transmission on nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons by the abused inhalant toluene. Addict Biol. 2016 May; 21(3):530-46. PMID: 25752326.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Scofield MD, Boger HA, Smith RJ, Li H, Haydon PG, Kalivas PW. Gq-DREADD Selectively Initiates Glial Glutamate Release and Inhibits Cue-induced Cocaine Seeking. Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Oct 01; 78(7):441-51. PMID: 25861696.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Stefanik MT, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. Optogenetic inhibition of cortical afferents in the nucleus accumbens simultaneously prevents cue-induced transient synaptic potentiation and cocaine-seeking behavior. Brain Struct Funct. 2016 Apr; 221(3):1681-9. PMID: 25663648.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Roberts-Wolfe DJ, Kalivas PW. Glutamate Transporter GLT-1 as a Therapeutic Target for Substance Use Disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015; 14(6):745-56. PMID: 26022265.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Gipson CD, Kalivas PW. More cocaine-more glutamate-more addiction. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Nov 15; 76(10):765-6. PMID: 25442059.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Smith AC, Kupchik YM, Scofield MD, Gipson CD, Wiggins A, Thomas CA, Kalivas PW. Synaptic plasticity mediating cocaine relapse requires matrix metalloproteinases. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 17(12):1655-7. PMID: 25326689.
      View in: PubMed
    41. McClure EA, Baker NL, Gipson CD, Carpenter MJ, Roper AP, Froeliger BE, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. An open-label pilot trial of N-acetylcysteine and varenicline in adult cigarette smokers. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2015 Jan; 41(1):52-6. PMID: 25062287.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Spencer S, Brown RM, Quintero GC, Kupchik YM, Thomas CA, Reissner KJ, Kalivas PW. a2d-1 signaling in nucleus accumbens is necessary for cocaine-induced relapse. J Neurosci. 2014 Jun 18; 34(25):8605-11. PMID: 24948814.
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    43. Kalivas PW, Gipson CD. "Mourning" a lost opportunity. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2014 Oct; 231(19):3921-2. PMID: 24862367.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Shen HW, Scofield MD, Boger H, Hensley M, Kalivas PW. Synaptic glutamate spillover due to impaired glutamate uptake mediates heroin relapse. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16; 34(16):5649-57. PMID: 24741055.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Reissner KJ, Gipson CD, Tran PK, Knackstedt LA, Scofield MD, Kalivas PW. Glutamate transporter GLT-1 mediates N-acetylcysteine inhibition of cocaine reinstatement. Addict Biol. 2015 Mar; 20(2):316-23. PMID: 24612076.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Scofield MD, Kalivas PW. Astrocytic dysfunction and addiction: consequences of impaired glutamate homeostasis. Neuroscientist. 2014 Dec; 20(6):610-22. PMID: 24496610.
      View in: PubMed
    47. McClure EA, Gipson CD, Malcolm RJ, Kalivas PW, Gray KM. Potential role of N-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders. CNS Drugs. 2014 Feb; 28(2):95-106. PMID: 24442756.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Kupchik YM, Scofield MD, Rice KC, Cheng K, Roques BP, Kalivas PW. Cocaine dysregulates opioid gating of GABA neurotransmission in the ventral pallidum. J Neurosci. 2014 Jan 15; 34(3):1057-66. PMID: 24431463.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Stefanik MT, Kalivas PW. Optogenetic dissection of basolateral amygdala projections during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Front Behav Neurosci. 2013; 7:213. PMID: 24399945.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Pomierny-Chamiolo L, Rup K, Pomierny B, Niedzielska E, Kalivas PW, Filip M. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Jun; 142(3):281-305. PMID: 24362085.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Shen HW, Gipson CD, Huits M, Kalivas PW. Prelimbic cortex and ventral tegmental area modulate synaptic plasticity differentially in nucleus accumbens during cocaine-reinstated drug seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Apr; 39(5):1169-77. PMID: 24232172.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Brown RM, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. The story of glutamate in drug addiction and of N-acetylcysteine as a potential pharmacotherapy. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Sep; 70(9):895-7. PMID: 23903770.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Reissner KJ, Brown RM, Spencer S, Tran PK, Thomas CA, Kalivas PW. Chronic administration of the methylxanthine propentofylline impairs reinstatement to cocaine by a GLT-1-dependent mechanism. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Jan; 39(2):499-506. PMID: 23985782.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Stefanik MT, Kupchik YM, Brown RM, Kalivas PW. Optogenetic evidence that pallidal projections, not nigral projections, from the nucleus accumbens core are necessary for reinstating cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 2013 Aug 21; 33(34):13654-62. PMID: 23966687.
      View in: PubMed
    55. LaRowe SD, Kalivas PW, Nicholas JS, Randall PK, Mardikian PN, Malcolm RJ. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Am J Addict. 2013 Sep-Oct; 22(5):443-52. PMID: 23952889.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Gipson CD, Reissner KJ, Kupchik YM, Smith AC, Stankeviciute N, Hensley-Simon ME, Kalivas PW. Reinstatement of nicotine seeking is mediated by glutamatergic plasticity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 28; 110(22):9124-9. PMID: 23671067.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Stankeviciute NM, Scofield MD, Kalivas PW, Gipson CD. Rapid, transient potentiation of dendritic spines in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking. Addict Biol. 2014 Nov; 19(6):972-4. PMID: 23648005.
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    58. Gipson CD, Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. Rapid, transient synaptic plasticity in addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2014 Jan; 76 Pt B:276-86. PMID: 23639436.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Gipson CD, Kupchik YM, Shen H, Reissner KJ, Thomas CA, Kalivas PW. Relapse induced by cues predicting cocaine depends on rapid, transient synaptic potentiation. Neuron. 2013 Mar 06; 77(5):867-72. PMID: 23473317.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Post RM, Kalivas P. Bipolar disorder and substance misuse: pathological and therapeutic implications of their comorbidity and cross-sensitisation. Br J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar; 202(3):172-6. PMID: 23457180.
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    61. Smith RJ, Lobo MK, Spencer S, Kalivas PW. Cocaine-induced adaptations in D1 and D2 accumbens projection neurons (a dichotomy not necessarily synonymous with direct and indirect pathways). Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013 Aug; 23(4):546-52. PMID: 23428656.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Garcia-Keller C, Martinez SA, Esparza MA, Bollati F, Kalivas PW, Cancela LM. Cross-sensitization between cocaine and acute restraint stress is associated with sensitized dopamine but not glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens. Eur J Neurosci. 2013 Mar; 37(6):982-95. PMID: 23360446.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Scofield MD, Kalivas PW. Forgiving the sins of the fathers. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(1):4-5. PMID: 23257926.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Kupchik YM, Kalivas PW. The rostral subcommissural ventral pallidum is a mix of ventral pallidal neurons and neurons from adjacent areas: an electrophysiological study. Brain Struct Funct. 2013 Nov; 218(6):1487-500. PMID: 23143342.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Shen H, Kalivas PW. Reduced LTP and LTD in prefrontal cortex synapses in the nucleus accumbens after heroin self-administration. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Jun; 16(5):1165-7. PMID: 23110855.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Mahler SV, Hensley-Simon M, Tahsili-Fahadan P, LaLumiere RT, Thomas C, Fallon RV, Kalivas PW, Aston-Jones G. Modafinil attenuates reinstatement of cocaine seeking: role for cystine-glutamate exchange and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Addict Biol. 2014 Jan; 19(1):49-60. PMID: 23017017.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Scofield MD, Korutla L, Jackson TG, Kalivas PW, Mackler SA. Nucleus Accumbens 1, a Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-brac Tramtrack Broad protein binds to TAR DNA-binding protein 43 and has a potential role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Neuroscience. 2012 Dec 27; 227:44-54. PMID: 23022214.
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    68. Trantham-Davidson H, LaLumiere RT, Reissner KJ, Kalivas PW, Knackstedt LA. Ceftriaxone normalizes nucleus accumbens synaptic transmission, glutamate transport, and export following cocaine self-administration and extinction training. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 05; 32(36):12406-10. PMID: 22956831.
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    69. Esparza MA, Bollati F, Garcia-Keller C, Virgolini MB, Lopez LM, Brusco A, Shen HW, Kalivas PW, Cancela LM. Stress-induced sensitization to cocaine: actin cytoskeleton remodeling within mesocorticolimbic nuclei. Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Oct; 36(8):3103-17. PMID: 22882295.
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    70. Lewerenz J, Hewett SJ, Huang Y, Lambros M, Gout PW, Kalivas PW, Massie A, Smolders I, Methner A, Pergande M, Smith SB, Ganapathy V, Maher P. The cystine/glutamate antiporter system x(c)(-) in health and disease: from molecular mechanisms to novel therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013 Feb 10; 18(5):522-55. PMID: 22667998.
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    71. Stefanik MT, Moussawi K, Kupchik YM, Smith KC, Miller RL, Huff ML, Deisseroth K, Kalivas PW, LaLumiere RT. Optogenetic inhibition of cocaine seeking in rats. Addict Biol. 2013 Jan; 18(1):50-3. PMID: 22823160.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Kalivas PW, Brady K. Getting to the core of addiction: hatching the addiction egg. Nat Med. 2012 Apr 05; 18(4):502-3. PMID: 22481410.
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    73. Pendyam S, Mohan A, Kalivas PW, Nair SS. Role of perisynaptic parameters in neurotransmitter homeostasis--computational study of a general synapse. Synapse. 2012 Jul; 66(7):608-21. PMID: 22460547.
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    74. Wang X, Moussawi K, Knackstedt L, Shen H, Kalivas PW. Role of mGluR5 neurotransmission in reinstated cocaine-seeking. Addict Biol. 2013 Jan; 18(1):40-9. PMID: 22340009.
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    75. LaLumiere RT, Smith KC, Kalivas PW. Neural circuit competition in cocaine-seeking: roles of the infralimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens shell. Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Feb; 35(4):614-22. PMID: 22321070.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Reid AG, Lingford-Hughes AR, Cancela LM, Kalivas PW. Substance abuse disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2012; 106:419-31. PMID: 22608635.
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    77. Kupchik YM, Moussawi K, Tang XC, Wang X, Kalivas BC, Kolokithas R, Ogburn KB, Kalivas PW. The effect of N-acetylcysteine in the nucleus accumbens on neurotransmission and relapse to cocaine. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 01; 71(11):978-86. PMID: 22137594.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Moussawi K, Riegel A, Nair S, Kalivas PW. Extracellular glutamate: functional compartments operate in different concentration ranges. Front Syst Neurosci. 2011; 5:94. PMID: 22275885.
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    79. Shen H, Moussawi K, Zhou W, Toda S, Kalivas PW. Heroin relapse requires long-term potentiation-like plasticity mediated by NMDA2b-containing receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 29; 108(48):19407-12. PMID: 22084102.
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    80. Wiggins A, Smith RJ, Shen HW, Kalivas PW. Integrins modulate relapse to cocaine-seeking. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 09; 31(45):16177-84. PMID: 22072669.
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    81. Reissner KJ, Sartor GC, Vazey EM, Dunn TE, Aston-Jones G, Kalivas PW. Use of vivo-morpholinos for control of protein expression in the adult rat brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Jan 30; 203(2):354-60. PMID: 22027492.
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    82. Javitt DC, Schoepp D, Kalivas PW, Volkow ND, Zarate C, Merchant K, Bear MF, Umbricht D, Hajos M, Potter WZ, Lee CM. Translating glutamate: from pathophysiology to treatment. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Sep 28; 3(102):102mr2. PMID: 21957170.
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    83. Melendez RI, McGinty JF, Kalivas PW, Becker HC. Brain region-specific gene expression changes after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and early withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. Addict Biol. 2012 Mar; 17(2):351-64. PMID: 21812870.
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    84. Uys JD, Knackstedt L, Hurt P, Tew KD, Manevich Y, Hutchens S, Townsend DM, Kalivas PW. Cocaine-induced adaptations in cellular redox balance contributes to enduring behavioral plasticity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2011 Nov; 36(12):2551-60. PMID: 21796101.
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    85. Brown TE, Lee BR, Mu P, Ferguson D, Dietz D, Ohnishi YN, Lin Y, Suska A, Ishikawa M, Huang YH, Shen H, Kalivas PW, Sorg BA, Zukin RS, Nestler EJ, Dong Y, Schlüter OM. A silent synapse-based mechanism for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 01; 31(22):8163-74. PMID: 21632938.
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    86. Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity. Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Oct; 16(10):974-86. PMID: 21519339.
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    87. Olive MF, Cleva RM, Kalivas PW, Malcolm RJ. Glutamatergic medications for the treatment of drug and behavioral addictions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Feb; 100(4):801-10. PMID: 21536062.
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    88. Reissner KJ, Uys JD, Schwacke JH, Comte-Walters S, Rutherford-Bethard JL, Dunn TE, Blumer JB, Schey KL, Kalivas PW. AKAP signaling in reinstated cocaine seeking revealed by iTRAQ proteomic analysis. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13; 31(15):5648-58. PMID: 21490206.
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    89. Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Drug wanting: behavioral sensitization and relapse to drug-seeking behavior. Pharmacol Rev. 2011 Jun; 63(2):348-65. PMID: 21490129.
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    90. Cramer SC, Sur M, Dobkin BH, O'Brien C, Sanger TD, Trojanowski JQ, Rumsey JM, Hicks R, Cameron J, Chen D, Chen WG, Cohen LG, deCharms C, Duffy CJ, Eden GF, Fetz EE, Filart R, Freund M, Grant SJ, Haber S, Kalivas PW, Kolb B, Kramer AF, Lynch M, Mayberg HS, McQuillen PS, Nitkin R, Pascual-Leone A, Reuter-Lorenz P, Schiff N, Sharma A, Shekim L, Stryker M, Sullivan EV, Vinogradov S. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain. 2011 Jun; 134(Pt 6):1591-609. PMID: 21482550.
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    91. Reichel CM, Moussawi K, Do PH, Kalivas PW, See RE. Chronic N-acetylcysteine during abstinence or extinction after cocaine self-administration produces enduring reductions in drug seeking. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 May; 337(2):487-93. PMID: 21303920.
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    92. Mohan A, Pendyam S, Kalivas PW, Nair SS. Molecular diffusion model of neurotransmitter homeostasis around synapses supporting gradients. Neural Comput. 2011 Apr; 23(4):984-1014. PMID: 21222526.
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    93. Moussawi K, Zhou W, Shen H, Reichel CM, See RE, Carr DB, Kalivas PW. Reversing cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation provides enduring protection from relapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 04; 108(1):385-90. PMID: 21173236.
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    95. Reissner KJ, Kalivas PW. Using glutamate homeostasis as a target for treating addictive disorders. Behav Pharmacol. 2010 Sep; 21(5-6):514-22. PMID: 20634691.
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    96. Knackstedt LA, Moussawi K, Lalumiere R, Schwendt M, Klugmann M, Kalivas PW. Extinction training after cocaine self-administration induces glutamatergic plasticity to inhibit cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 09; 30(23):7984-92. PMID: 20534846.
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    97. Toda S, Shen H, Kalivas PW. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevents cocaine-induced changes in spine morphology in the nucleus accumbens. Neurotox Res. 2010 Nov; 18(3-4):410-5. PMID: 20401643.
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    98. Moussawi K, Kalivas PW. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2/3) in drug addiction. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Aug 10; 639(1-3):115-22. PMID: 20371233.
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    99. LaLumiere RT, Niehoff KE, Kalivas PW. The infralimbic cortex regulates the consolidation of extinction after cocaine self-administration. Learn Mem. 2010 Apr; 17(4):168-75. PMID: 20332188.
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    100. Rocha A, Kalivas PW. Role of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens in reinstating methamphetamine seeking. Eur J Neurosci. 2010 Mar; 31(5):903-9. PMID: 20180839.
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    101. Riegel AC, Kalivas PW. Neuroscience: Lack of inhibition leads to abuse. Nature. 2010 Feb 11; 463(7282):743-4. PMID: 20148025.
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    102. Knackstedt LA, Melendez RI, Kalivas PW. Ceftriaxone restores glutamate homeostasis and prevents relapse to cocaine seeking. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Jan 01; 67(1):81-4. PMID: 19717140.
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    103. Uys JD, Grey AC, Wiggins A, Schwacke JH, Schey KL, Kalivas PW. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tissue profiling of secretoneurin in the nucleus accumbens shell from cocaine-sensitized rats. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Jan; 45(1):97-103. PMID: 19918966.
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    104. LaRowe SD, Kalivas PW. The Role of N-Acetylcysteine in Inhibiting Responding During Extinction in Rats Trained to Self-Administer Cocaine. Open Addict J. 2010; 3:88-91. PMID: 26089997.
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    105. Schwendt M, Rocha A, See RE, Pacchioni AM, McGinty JF, Kalivas PW. Extended methamphetamine self-administration in rats results in a selective reduction of dopamine transporter levels in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum not accompanied by marked monoaminergic depletion. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Nov; 331(2):555-62. PMID: 19648469.
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    106. Kalivas PW. The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis of addiction. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Aug; 10(8):561-72. PMID: 19571793.
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    107. Pacchioni AM, Kalivas PW. The Role of AMPAR Trafficking Mediated by Neuronal Pentraxins in Cocaine-induced Neuroadaptations. Mol Cell Pharmacol. 2009 May 06; 1(2):183-192. PMID: 20336176.
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    108. Peters J, Kalivas PW, Quirk GJ. Extinction circuits for fear and addiction overlap in prefrontal cortex. Learn Mem. 2009 May; 16(5):279-88. PMID: 19380710.
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    109. Berglind WJ, Whitfield TW, LaLumiere RT, Kalivas PW, McGinty JF. A single intra-PFC infusion of BDNF prevents cocaine-induced alterations in extracellular glutamate within the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 25; 29(12):3715-9. PMID: 19321768.
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    110. Shen HW, Toda S, Moussawi K, Bouknight A, Zahm DS, Kalivas PW. Altered dendritic spine plasticity in cocaine-withdrawn rats. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 04; 29(9):2876-84. PMID: 19261883.
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    111. Kalivas PW. Perspective: the manifest destiny of cocaine research. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Apr; 34(5):1089-90. PMID: 19194378.
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    112. Knackstedt LA, Kalivas PW. Glutamate and reinstatement. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Feb; 9(1):59-64. PMID: 19157986.
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    113. Moussawi K, Pacchioni A, Moran M, Olive MF, Gass JT, Lavin A, Kalivas PW. N-Acetylcysteine reverses cocaine-induced metaplasticity. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Feb; 12(2):182-9. PMID: 19136971.
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    114. Ghasemzadeh MB, Windham LK, Lake RW, Acker CJ, Kalivas PW. Cocaine activates Homer1 immediate early gene transcription in the mesocorticolimbic circuit: differential regulation by dopamine and glutamate signaling. Synapse. 2009 Jan; 63(1):42-53. PMID: 18932227.
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    115. Knackstedt LA, LaRowe S, Mardikian P, Malcolm R, Upadhyaya H, Hedden S, Markou A, Kalivas PW. The role of cystine-glutamate exchange in nicotine dependence in rats and humans. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 May 15; 65(10):841-5. PMID: 19103434.
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    116. Wiggins AT, Pacchioni AM, Kalivas PW. Integrin expression is altered after acute and chronic cocaine. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Feb 06; 450(3):321-3. PMID: 19073234.
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    117. Zhou W, Zhang F, Liu H, Tang S, Lai M, Zhu H, Kalivas PW. Effects of training and withdrawal periods on heroin seeking induced by conditioned cue in an animal of model of relapse. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 May; 203(4):677-84. PMID: 19043694.
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    118. Pendyam S, Mohan A, Kalivas PW, Nair SS. Computational model of extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens incorporates neuroadaptations by chronic cocaine. Neuroscience. 2009 Feb 18; 158(4):1266-76. PMID: 19084053.
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    119. Chandler LJ, Kalivas PW. Neuroscience: Brain's defence against cocaine. Nature. 2008 Oct 09; 455(7214):743-4. PMID: 18843354.
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    120. Pacchioni AM, Vallone J, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Neuronal pentraxins modulate cocaine-induced neuroadaptations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Jan; 328(1):183-92. PMID: 18840757.
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    121. Kalivas PW. Addiction as a pathology in prefrontal cortical regulation of corticostriatal habit circuitry. Neurotox Res. 2008 Oct; 14(2-3):185-9. PMID: 19073425.
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    122. Nahas Z, Jiang Y, Zeidan YH, Bielawska A, Szulc Z, Devane L, Kalivas P, Hannun YA. Anti-ceramidase LCL385 acutely reduces BCL-2 expression in the hippocampus but is not associated with an increase of learned helplessness in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009 Jan 30; 197(1):41-4. PMID: 18768150.
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    123. Carr DB, Kalivas PW. Confused about NMDA and addiction? Targeted knockouts provide answers and new questions. Neuron. 2008 Aug 14; 59(3):353-5. PMID: 18701061.
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    124. Kalivas PW, Lalumiere RT, Knackstedt L, Shen H. Glutamate transmission in addiction. Neuropharmacology. 2009; 56 Suppl 1:169-73. PMID: 18675832.
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    125. Shen H, Sesack SR, Toda S, Kalivas PW. Automated quantification of dendritic spine density and spine head diameter in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens. Brain Struct Funct. 2008 Sep; 213(1-2):149-57. PMID: 18535839.
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    126. Peters J, LaLumiere RT, Kalivas PW. Infralimbic prefrontal cortex is responsible for inhibiting cocaine seeking in extinguished rats. J Neurosci. 2008 Jun 04; 28(23):6046-53. PMID: 18524910.
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    127. Aston-Jones G, Kalivas PW. Brain norepinephrine rediscovered in addiction research. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Jun 01; 63(11):1005-6. PMID: 18482610.
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    128. Lawrence AJ, Beart PM, Kalivas PW. Neuropharmacology of addiction--setting the scene. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 May; 154(2):259-60. PMID: 18414384.
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    129. Torregrossa MM, Tang XC, Kalivas PW. The glutamatergic projection from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens core is required for cocaine-induced decreases in ventral pallidal GABA. Neurosci Lett. 2008 Jun 20; 438(2):142-5. PMID: 18455875.
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    130. LaLumiere RT, Kalivas PW. Glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for heroin seeking. J Neurosci. 2008 Mar 19; 28(12):3170-7. PMID: 18354020.
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    131. Thomas MJ, Kalivas PW, Shaham Y. Neuroplasticity in the mesolimbic dopamine system and cocaine addiction. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 May; 154(2):327-42. PMID: 18345022.
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    132. Torregrossa MM, Kalivas PW. Neurotensin in the ventral pallidum increases extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid and differentially affects cue- and cocaine-primed reinstatement. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 May; 325(2):556-66. PMID: 18252810.
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    133. Peters J, Vallone J, Laurendi K, Kalivas PW. Opposing roles for the ventral prefrontal cortex and the basolateral amygdala on the spontaneous recovery of cocaine-seeking in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Apr; 197(2):319-26. PMID: 18066533.
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    134. Torregrossa MM, Kalivas PW. Microdialysis and the neurochemistry of addiction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Aug; 90(2):261-72. PMID: 17928041.
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    135. Kalivas PW, O'Brien C. Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Jan; 33(1):166-80. PMID: 17805308.
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    136. Mackler S, Pacchioni A, Degnan R, Homan Y, Conti AC, Kalivas P, Blendy JA. Requirement for the POZ/BTB protein NAC1 in acute but not chronic psychomotor stimulant response. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Feb 11; 187(1):48-55. PMID: 17945361.
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    137. Zhou W, Kalivas PW. N-acetylcysteine reduces extinction responding and induces enduring reductions in cue- and heroin-induced drug-seeking. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb 01; 63(3):338-40. PMID: 17719565.
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    138. Shen H, Korutla L, Champtiaux N, Toda S, LaLumiere R, Vallone J, Klugmann M, Blendy JA, Mackler SA, Kalivas PW. NAC1 regulates the recruitment of the proteasome complex into dendritic spines. J Neurosci. 2007 Aug 15; 27(33):8903-13. PMID: 17699672.
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    139. Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. Locomotor behavior. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2007 Jul; Chapter 8:Unit 8.1. PMID: 18428664.
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    140. LaRowe SD, Myrick H, Hedden S, Mardikian P, Saladin M, McRae A, Brady K, Kalivas PW, Malcolm R. Is cocaine desire reduced by N-acetylcysteine? Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Jul; 164(7):1115-7. PMID: 17606664.
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    141. Knackstedt LA, Kalivas PW. Extended access to cocaine self-administration enhances drug-primed reinstatement but not behavioral sensitization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Sep; 322(3):1103-9. PMID: 17601982.
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    142. Kalivas PW. Neurobiology of cocaine addiction: implications for new pharmacotherapy. Am J Addict. 2007 Mar-Apr; 16(2):71-8. PMID: 17453607.
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    143. Kalivas PW. Cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants: neurocircuitry and glutamate neuroplasticity. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2007; 9(4):389-97. PMID: 18286799.
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    144. Zhou W, Liu H, Zhang F, Tang S, Zhu H, Lai M, Kalivas PW. Role of acetylcholine transmission in nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area in heroin-seeking induced by conditioned cues. Neuroscience. 2007 Feb 23; 144(4):1209-18. PMID: 17184925.
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    145. Kalivas PW, Peters J, Knackstedt L. Animal models and brain circuits in drug addiction. Mol Interv. 2006 Dec; 6(6):339-44. PMID: 17200461.
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    146. Melendez RI, Middaugh LD, Kalivas PW. Development of an alcohol deprivation and escalation effect in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Dec; 30(12):2017-25. PMID: 17117967.
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    147. Nogueira L, Kalivas PW, Lavin A. Long-term neuroadaptations produced by withdrawal from repeated cocaine treatment: role of dopaminergic receptors in modulating cortical excitability. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 22; 26(47):12308-13. PMID: 17122056.
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    148. Mardikian PN, LaRowe SD, Hedden S, Kalivas PW, Malcolm RJ. An open-label trial of N-acetylcysteine for the treatment of cocaine dependence: a pilot study. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar 30; 31(2):389-94. PMID: 17113207.
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    149. Pacchioni AM, Vallone J, Melendez RI, Shih A, Murphy TH, Kalivas PW. Nrf2 gene deletion fails to alter psychostimulant-induced behavior or neurotoxicity. Brain Res. 2007 Jan 05; 1127(1):26-35. PMID: 17113054.
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    150. Shih AY, Erb H, Sun X, Toda S, Kalivas PW, Murphy TH. Cystine/glutamate exchange modulates glutathione supply for neuroprotection from oxidative stress and cell proliferation. J Neurosci. 2006 Oct 11; 26(41):10514-23. PMID: 17035536.
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    151. Kalivas PW, Hu XT. Exciting inhibition in psychostimulant addiction. Trends Neurosci. 2006 Nov; 29(11):610-6. PMID: 16956674.
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    152. Szumlinski KK, Kalivas PW, Worley PF. Homer proteins: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006 Jun; 16(3):251-7. PMID: 16704932.
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    153. Peters J, Kalivas PW. The group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, LY379268, inhibits both cocaine- and food-seeking behavior in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Jun; 186(2):143-9. PMID: 16703399.
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    154. Szumlinski KK, Abernathy KE, Oleson EB, Klugmann M, Lominac KD, He DY, Ron D, During M, Kalivas PW. Homer isoforms differentially regulate cocaine-induced neuroplasticity. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Apr; 31(4):768-77. PMID: 16160706.
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    155. Carr D, Kalivas PW. Orexin: a gatekeeper of addiction. Nat Med. 2006 Mar; 12(3):274-6. PMID: 16520768.
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    156. Toda S, Shen HW, Peters J, Cagle S, Kalivas PW. Cocaine increases actin cycling: effects in the reinstatement model of drug seeking. J Neurosci. 2006 Feb 01; 26(5):1579-87. PMID: 16452681.
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    157. LaRowe SD, Mardikian P, Malcolm R, Myrick H, Kalivas P, McFarland K, Saladin M, McRae A, Brady K. Safety and tolerability of N-acetylcysteine in cocaine-dependent individuals. Am J Addict. 2006 Jan-Feb; 15(1):105-10. PMID: 16449100.
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    158. Lominac KD, Oleson EB, Pava M, Klugmann M, Schwarz MK, Seeburg PH, During MJ, Worley PF, Kalivas PW, Szumlinski KK. Distinct roles for different Homer1 isoforms in behaviors and associated prefrontal cortex function. J Neurosci. 2005 Dec 14; 25(50):11586-94. PMID: 16354916.
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    159. Champtiaux N, Kalivas PW, Bardo MT. Contribution of dihydro-beta-erythroidine sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area to cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2006 Mar 15; 168(1):120-6. PMID: 16313978.
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    160. Kalivas PW. How do we determine which drug-induced neuroplastic changes are important? Nat Neurosci. 2005 Nov; 8(11):1440-1. PMID: 16251984.
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    161. Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Aug; 162(8):1403-13. PMID: 16055761.
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    162. Szumlinski KK, Lominac KD, Oleson EB, Walker JK, Mason A, Dehoff MH, Klugmann M, Klugman M, Cagle S, Welt K, During M, Worley PF, Middaugh LD, Kalivas PW. Homer2 is necessary for EtOH-induced neuroplasticity. J Neurosci. 2005 Jul 27; 25(30):7054-61. PMID: 16049182.
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    163. Moran MM, McFarland K, Melendez RI, Kalivas PW, Seamans JK. Cystine/glutamate exchange regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor presynaptic inhibition of excitatory transmission and vulnerability to cocaine seeking. J Neurosci. 2005 Jul 06; 25(27):6389-93. PMID: 16000629.
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    164. Korutla L, Champtiaux N, Shen HW, Klugmann M, Klugman M, Kalivas PW, Mackler SA. Activity-dependent subcellular localization of NAC1. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jul; 22(2):397-403. PMID: 16045493.
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    165. Szumlinski KK, Lominac KD, Kleschen MJ, Oleson EB, Dehoff MH, Schwarz MK, Schwartz MK, Seeburg PH, Seeberg PH, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Behavioral and neurochemical phenotyping of Homer1 mutant mice: possible relevance to schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2005 Jul; 4(5):273-88. PMID: 16011574.
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    166. Tang XC, McFarland K, Cagle S, Kalivas PW. Cocaine-induced reinstatement requires endogenous stimulation of mu-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum. J Neurosci. 2005 May 04; 25(18):4512-20. PMID: 15872098.
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    167. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Ma Y, Fowler JS, Wong C, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Swanson JM, Kalivas P. Activation of orbital and medial prefrontal cortex by methylphenidate in cocaine-addicted subjects but not in controls: relevance to addiction. J Neurosci. 2005 Apr 13; 25(15):3932-9. PMID: 15829645.
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    168. Melendez RI, Vuthiganon J, Kalivas PW. Regulation of extracellular glutamate in the prefrontal cortex: focus on the cystine glutamate exchanger and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Jul; 314(1):139-47. PMID: 15769865.
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    169. Kalivas PW, Volkow N, Seamans J. Unmanageable motivation in addiction: a pathology in prefrontal-accumbens glutamate transmission. Neuron. 2005 Mar 03; 45(5):647-50. PMID: 15748840.
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    170. Melendez RI, Hicks MP, Cagle SS, Kalivas PW. Ethanol exposure decreases glutamate uptake in the nucleus accumbens. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar; 29(3):326-33. PMID: 15770106.
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    171. Melendez RI, Gregory ML, Bardo MT, Kalivas PW. Impoverished rearing environment alters metabotropic glutamate receptor expression and function in the prefrontal cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Nov; 29(11):1980-7. PMID: 15187985.
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    172. Kalivas PW. Recent understanding in the mechanisms of addiction. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2004 Oct; 6(5):347-51. PMID: 15355757.
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    173. Szumlinski KK, Frys KA, Kalivas PW. Dissociable roles for the dorsal and median raphé in the facilitatory effect of 5-HT1A receptor stimulation upon cocaine-induced locomotion and sensitization. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2004 Sep; 29(9):1675-87. PMID: 15127081.
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    174. Szumlinski KK, Kalivas PW. Novel ideas about novelty. Commentary on Badiani and Robinson drug-induced neurobehavioral plasticity: the role of environmental context. Behav Pharmacol. 2004 Sep; 15(5-6):373-6. PMID: 15343062.
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    175. Szumlinski KK, Dehoff MH, Kang SH, Frys KA, Lominac KD, Klugmann M, Rohrer J, Griffin W, Toda S, Champtiaux NP, Berry T, Tu JC, Shealy SE, During MJ, Middaugh LD, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Homer proteins regulate sensitivity to cocaine. Neuron. 2004 Aug 05; 43(3):401-13. PMID: 15294147.
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    176. Melendez RI, Kalivas PW. Last call for adenosine transporters. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 7(8):795-6. PMID: 15280889.
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    177. Bowers MS, McFarland K, Lake RW, Peterson YK, Lapish CC, Gregory ML, Lanier SM, Kalivas PW. Activator of G protein signaling 3: a gatekeeper of cocaine sensitization and drug seeking. Neuron. 2004 Apr 22; 42(2):269-81. PMID: 15091342.
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    178. McFarland K, Davidge SB, Lapish CC, Kalivas PW. Limbic and motor circuitry underlying footshock-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 18; 24(7):1551-60. PMID: 14973230.
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    179. Kalivas PW. Glutamate systems in cocaine addiction. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2004 Feb; 4(1):23-9. PMID: 15018835.
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    180. Kalivas PW. Choose to study choice in addiction. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Feb; 161(2):193-4. PMID: 14754764.
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    181. Kalivas PW, Szumlinski KK, Worley P. Homer2 gene deletion in mice produces a phenotype similar to chronic cocaine treated rats. Neurotox Res. 2004; 6(5):385-7. PMID: 15545022.
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    182. Xi ZX, Shen H, Baker DA, Kalivas PW. Inhibition of non-vesicular glutamate release by group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2003 Dec; 87(5):1204-12. PMID: 14622100.
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    183. Middaugh LD, Szumlinski KK, Van Patten Y, Marlowe AL, Kalivas PW. Chronic ethanol consumption by C57BL/6 mice promotes tolerance to its interoceptive cues and increases extracellular dopamine, an effect blocked by naltrexone. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Dec; 27(12):1892-900. PMID: 14691376.
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    184. Toda S, Alguacil LF, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine administration changes the function and subcellular distribution of adenosine A1 receptor in the rat nucleus accumbens. J Neurochem. 2003 Dec; 87(6):1478-84. PMID: 14713303.
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    185. Bowers MS, Lake RW, Rubinchik S, Dong JY, Kalivas PW. Elucidation of Homer 1a function in the nucleus accumbens using adenovirus gene transfer technology. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:419-21. PMID: 14684477.
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    186. Bowers MS, Lake RW, McFarland K, Peterson YK, Lanier SM, Lapish CC, Kalivas PW. AGS3: a G-Protein regulator of addiction-associated behaviors. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:356-7. PMID: 14684460.
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    187. Tang XC, Kalivas PW. Bidirectional modulation of cystine/glutamate exchanger activity in cultured cortical astrocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:472-5. PMID: 14684492.
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    188. Szumlinski KK, Toda S, Middaugh LD, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Evidence for a relationship between Group 1 mGluR hypofunction and increased cocaine and ethanol sensitivity in Homer2 null mutant mice. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:468-71. PMID: 14684491.
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    189. Baker DA, McFarland K, Lake RW, Shen H, Toda S, Kalivas PW. N-acetyl cysteine-induced blockade of cocaine-induced reinstatement. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:349-51. PMID: 14684458.
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    190. Gregory ML, Stech NE, Owens RW, Kalivas PW. Prefrontal group II metabotropic glutamate receptor activation decreases performance on a working memory task. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:405-9. PMID: 14684473.
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    191. Kalivas PW, McFarland K, Bowers S, Szumlinski K, Xi ZX, Baker D. Glutamate transmission and addiction to cocaine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:169-75. PMID: 14684444.
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    192. Ghasemzadeh MB, Permenter LK, Lake RW, Kalivas PW. Nucleus accumbens Homer proteins regulate behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:395-7. PMID: 14684470.
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    193. Moran MM, Melendez R, Baker D, Kalivas PW, Seamans JK. Cystine/glutamate antiporter regulation of vesicular glutamate release. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:445-7. PMID: 14684484.
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    194. Melendez RI, Kalivas PW. Metabotropic glutamate receptor regulation of extracellular glutamate levels in the prefrontal cortex. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003 Nov; 1003:443-4. PMID: 14684483.
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    195. Ghasemzadeh MB, Permenter LK, Lake R, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Homer1 proteins and AMPA receptors modulate cocaine-induced behavioural plasticity. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Sep; 18(6):1645-51. PMID: 14511343.
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    196. Baker DA, McFarland K, Lake RW, Shen H, Tang XC, Toda S, Kalivas PW. Neuroadaptations in cystine-glutamate exchange underlie cocaine relapse. Nat Neurosci. 2003 Jul; 6(7):743-9. PMID: 12778052.
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    197. McFarland K, Lapish CC, Kalivas PW. Prefrontal glutamate release into the core of the nucleus accumbens mediates cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 15; 23(8):3531-7. PMID: 12716962.
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    198. Xi ZX, Ramamoorthy S, Shen H, Lake R, Samuvel DJ, Kalivas PW. GABA transmission in the nucleus accumbens is altered after withdrawal from repeated cocaine. J Neurosci. 2003 Apr 15; 23(8):3498-505. PMID: 12716959.
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    199. Kalivas PW, McFarland K. Brain circuitry and the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 Jul; 168(1-2):44-56. PMID: 12652346.
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    200. Bowers MS, Kalivas PW. Forebrain astroglial plasticity is induced following withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Mar; 17(6):1273-8. PMID: 12670315.
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    201. Kalivas PW, Toda S, Bowers MS, Baker DA, Ghasemzadeh MB. The temporal sequence of changes in gene expression by drugs of abuse. Methods Mol Med. 2003; 79:3-11. PMID: 12506686.
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    202. Kalivas PW. Predisposition to addiction: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and brain circuitry. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jan; 160(1):1-2. PMID: 12505792.
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    203. Szumlinski KK, Frys KA, Kalivas PW. Pretreatment with serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists produces no observable blockade of long-term motor sensitization to cocaine in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2003 Feb; 165(4):329-36. PMID: 12451437.
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    204. Xi ZX, Ramamoorthy S, Baker DA, Shen H, Samuvel DJ, Kalivas PW. Modulation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling by chronic cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Nov; 303(2):608-15. PMID: 12388642.
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    205. Baker DA, Xi ZX, Shen H, Swanson CJ, Kalivas PW. The origin and neuronal function of in vivo nonsynaptic glutamate. J Neurosci. 2002 Oct 15; 22(20):9134-41. PMID: 12388621.
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    206. Toda S, McGinty JF, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine administration alters the expression of genes in corticolimbic circuitry after a 3-week withdrawal: a DNA macroarray study. J Neurochem. 2002 Sep; 82(5):1290-9. PMID: 12358776.
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    207. Crespo JA, Oliva JM, Ghasemzadeh MB, Kalivas PW, Ambrosio E. Neuroadaptive changes in NMDAR1 gene expression after extinction of cocaine self-administration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Jun; 965:78-91. PMID: 12105087.
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    208. Baker DA, Shen H, Kalivas PW. Cystine/glutamate exchange serves as the source for extracellular glutamate: modifications by repeated cocaine administration. Amino Acids. 2002; 23(1-3):161-2. PMID: 12373531.
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    209. Trantham H, Szumlinski KK, McFarland K, Kalivas PW, Lavin A. Repeated cocaine administration alters the electrophysiological properties of prefrontal cortical neurons. Neuroscience. 2002; 113(4):749-53. PMID: 12182882.
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    210. Xi ZX, Baker DA, Shen H, Carson DS, Kalivas PW. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors modulate extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Jan; 300(1):162-71. PMID: 11752112.
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    211. Cornish JL, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine administration into the rat ventral tegmental area produces behavioral sensitization to a systemic cocaine challenge. Behav Brain Res. 2001 Nov 29; 126(1-2):205-9. PMID: 11704265.
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    212. Swanson CJ, Baker DA, Carson D, Worley PF, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine administration attenuates group I metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated glutamate release and behavioral activation: a potential role for Homer. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 15; 21(22):9043-52. PMID: 11698615.
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    213. McFarland K, Kalivas PW. The circuitry mediating cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 01; 21(21):8655-63. PMID: 11606653.
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    214. Cornish JL, Nakamura M, Kalivas PW. Dopamine-independent locomotion following blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the ventral tegmental area. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul; 298(1):226-33. PMID: 11408546.
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    215. Kalivas PW. Drug addiction: to the cortex.and beyond! Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Mar; 158(3):349-50. PMID: 11229971.
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    216. Kalivas PW, Jackson D, Romanidies A, Wyndham L, Duffy P. Involvement of pallidothalamic circuitry in working memory. Neuroscience. 2001; 104(1):129-36. PMID: 11311537.
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    217. Cornish JL, Kalivas PW. Cocaine sensitization and craving: differing roles for dopamine and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. J Addict Dis. 2001; 20(3):43-54. PMID: 11681592.
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    218. Bell K, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Context-specific enhancement of glutamate transmission by cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep; 23(3):335-44. PMID: 10942857.
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    219. Mackler SA, Korutla L, Cha XY, Koebbe MJ, Fournier KM, Bowers MS, Kalivas PW. NAC-1 is a brain POZ/BTB protein that can prevent cocaine-induced sensitization in the rat. J Neurosci. 2000 Aug 15; 20(16):6210-7. PMID: 10934270.
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    220. Cornish JL, Kalivas PW. Glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens mediates relapse in cocaine addiction. J Neurosci. 2000 Aug 01; 20(15):RC89. PMID: 10899176.
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    221. Vanderschuren LJ, Kalivas PW. Alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission in the induction and expression of behavioral sensitization: a critical review of preclinical studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Aug; 151(2-3):99-120. PMID: 10972458.
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    222. Kalivas PW. A role for glutamate transmission in addiction to psychostimulants. Addict Biol. 2000 Jul 01; 5(3):325-9. PMID: 20575849.
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    223. Swanson CJ, Kalivas PW. Regulation of locomotor activity by metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2000 Jan; 292(1):406-14. PMID: 10604977.
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    224. Ghasemzadeh MB, Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. The monoamine neurons of the rat brain preferentially express a splice variant of alpha1B subunit of the N-type calcium channel. J Neurochem. 1999 Oct; 73(4):1718-23. PMID: 10501220.
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    225. Churchill L, Kalivas PW. The involvement of the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus and the midbrain extrapyramidal area in locomotion elicited from the ventral pallidum. Behav Brain Res. 1999 Oct; 104(1-2):63-71. PMID: 11125743.
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    226. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Mackler SA. Interrupted expression of NAC-1 augments the behavioral responses to cocaine. Synapse. 1999 Aug; 33(2):153-9. PMID: 10400893.
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    227. Kalivas PW, Churchill L, Romanides A. Involvement of the pallidal-thalamocortical circuit in adaptive behavior. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Jun 29; 877:64-70. PMID: 10415643.
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    228. Churchill L, Swanson CJ, Urbina M, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine alters glutamate receptor subunit levels in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area of rats that develop behavioral sensitization. J Neurochem. 1999 Jun; 72(6):2397-403. PMID: 10349849.
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    229. Lu XY, Ghasemzadeh MB, Kalivas PW. Regional distribution and cellular localization of gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype 1 receptor mRNA in the rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 1999 May 03; 407(2):166-82. PMID: 10213089.
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    230. Kalivas PW, Nakamura M. Neural systems for behavioral activation and reward. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999 Apr; 9(2):223-7. PMID: 10322190.
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    231. Hu G, Duffy P, Swanson C, Ghasemzadeh MB, Kalivas PW. The regulation of dopamine transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Apr; 289(1):412-6. PMID: 10087032.
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    232. Lu XY, Ghasemzadeh MB, Kalivas PW. Expression of glutamate receptor subunit/subtype messenger RNAS for NMDAR1, GLuR1, GLuR2 and mGLuR5 by accumbal projection neurons. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Jan 08; 63(2):287-96. PMID: 9878792.
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    233. Cornish JL, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. A role for nucleus accumbens glutamate transmission in the relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior. Neuroscience. 1999; 93(4):1359-67. PMID: 10501460.
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    234. Ghasemzadeh MB, Nelson LC, Lu XY, Kalivas PW. Neuroadaptations in ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA produced by cocaine treatment. J Neurochem. 1999 Jan; 72(1):157-65. PMID: 9886066.
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    235. Romanides AJ, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Glutamatergic and dopaminergic afferents to the prefrontal cortex regulate spatial working memory in rats. Neuroscience. 1999; 92(1):97-106. PMID: 10392833.
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    236. Churchill L, Klitenick MA, Kalivas PW. Dopamine depletion reorganizes projections from the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum that mediate opioid-induced motor activity. J Neurosci. 1998 Oct 01; 18(19):8074-85. PMID: 9742174.
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    237. Pierce RC, Quick EA, Reeder DC, Morgan ZR, Kalivas PW. Calcium-mediated second messengers modulate the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Sep; 286(3):1171-6. PMID: 9732375.
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    238. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, White SR. MDMA elicits behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1998 Jun; 18(6):469-79. PMID: 9571655.
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    239. White FJ, Kalivas PW. Neuroadaptations involved in amphetamine and cocaine addiction. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Jun-Jul; 51(1-2):141-53. PMID: 9716936.
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    240. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Repeated cocaine administration alters extracellular glutamate in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurochem. 1998 Apr; 70(4):1497-502. PMID: 9523566.
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    241. Pierce RC, Reeder DC, Hicks J, Morgan ZR, Kalivas PW. Ibotenic acid lesions of the dorsal prefrontal cortex disrupt the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuroscience. 1998 Feb; 82(4):1103-14. PMID: 9466434.
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    242. Lu XY, Ghasemzadeh MB, Kalivas PW. Expression of D1 receptor, D2 receptor, substance P and enkephalin messenger RNAs in the neurons projecting from the nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience. 1998 Feb; 82(3):767-80. PMID: 9483534.
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    243. Kalivas PW, Pierce RC, Cornish J, Sorg BA. A role for sensitization in craving and relapse in cocaine addiction. J Psychopharmacol. 1998; 12(1):49-53. PMID: 9584968.
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    244. Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. A circuitry model of the expression of behavioral sensitization to amphetamine-like psychostimulants. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1997 Oct; 25(2):192-216. PMID: 9403138.
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    245. Cha XY, Pierce RC, Kalivas PW, Mackler SA. NAC-1, a rat brain mRNA, is increased in the nucleus accumbens three weeks after chronic cocaine self-administration. J Neurosci. 1997 Sep 15; 17(18):6864-71. PMID: 9278521.
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    246. Pierce RC, Meil WM, Kalivas PW. The NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine, enhances cocaine reinforcement without influencing mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Sep; 133(2):188-95. PMID: 9342786.
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    247. Samson HH, Hodge CW, Erickson HL, Niehus JS, Gerhardt GA, Kalivas PW, Floyd EA. The effects of local application of ethanol in the n. accumbens on dopamine overflow and clearance. Alcohol. 1997 Sep-Oct; 14(5):485-92. PMID: 9305464.
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    248. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Dopamine regulation of extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1997 Jun 27; 761(1):173-7. PMID: 9247082.
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    249. Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine modifies the mechanism by which amphetamine releases dopamine. J Neurosci. 1997 May 01; 17(9):3254-61. PMID: 9096158.
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    250. Sorg BA, Davidson DL, Kalivas PW, Prasad BM. Repeated daily cocaine alters subsequent cocaine-induced increase of extracellular dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Apr; 281(1):54-61. PMID: 9103480.
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    251. Lu XY, Churchill L, Kalivas PW. Expression of D1 receptor mRNA in projections from the forebrain to the ventral tegmental area. Synapse. 1997 Feb; 25(2):205-14. PMID: 9021901.
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    252. Craft RM, Kalivas PW, Stratmann JA. Sex differences in discriminative stimulus effects of morphine in the rat. Behav Pharmacol. 1996 Dec; 7(8):764-778. PMID: 11224471.
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    253. Kalivas PW. Behaviorally relevant measures of glutamate transmission? Commentary on Di Chiara et al., 'Estimation of in-vivo neurotransmitter release by brain microdialysis: the issue of validity' Behav Pharmacol. 1996 Nov; 7(7):658-660. PMID: 11224461.
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    254. Bell K, Kalivas PW. Context-specific cross-sensitization between systemic cocaine and intra-accumbens AMPA infusion in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Oct; 127(4):377-83. PMID: 8923575.
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    255. Pierce RC, Born B, Adams M, Kalivas PW. Repeated intra-ventral tegmental area administration of SKF-38393 induces behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to a subsequent cocaine challenge. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Jul; 278(1):384-92. PMID: 8764374.
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    256. Prasad BM, Ulibarri C, Kalivas PW, Sorg BA. Effect of adrenalectomy on the initiation and expression of cocaine-induced sensitization. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1996 Jun; 125(3):265-73. PMID: 8815963.
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    257. Johnson K, Churchill L, Klitenick MA, Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. Involvement of the ventral tegmental area in locomotion elicited from the nucleus accumbens or ventral pallidum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 May; 277(2):1122-31. PMID: 8627524.
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    258. Kalivas PW, Bush L, Hanson G. High and low behavioral response to novelty is associated with differences in neurotensin and substance P content. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Mar 22; 780:164-7. PMID: 8602729.
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    259. Harris GC, Hedaya MA, Pan WJ, Kalivas P. beta-adrenergic antagonism alters the behavioral and neurochemical responses to cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1996 Mar; 14(3):195-204. PMID: 8866703.
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    260. Pierce RC, Bell K, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Repeated cocaine augments excitatory amino acid transmission in the nucleus accumbens only in rats having developed behavioral sensitization. J Neurosci. 1996 Feb 15; 16(4):1550-60. PMID: 8778304.
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    261. Churchill L, Zahm DS, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in rats--II. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of GABA agonists. Neuroscience. 1996 Jan; 70(1):103-12. PMID: 8848116.
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    262. Churchill L, Zahm DS, Kalivas PW. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in rats--I. forebrain gabaergic innervation. Neuroscience. 1996 Jan; 70(1):93-102. PMID: 8848140.
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    263. Prasad BM, Sorg BA, Ulibarri C, Kalivas PW. Sensitization to stress and psychostimulants. Involvement of dopamine transmission versus the HPA axis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Dec 29; 771:617-25. PMID: 8597435.
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    264. Napier TC, Mitrovic I, Churchill L, Klitenick MA, Lu XY, Kalivas PW. Substance P in the ventral pallidum: projection from the ventral striatum, and electrophysiological and behavioral consequences of pallidal substance P. Neuroscience. 1995 Nov; 69(1):59-70. PMID: 8637633.
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    265. Pierce RC, Kalivas PW. Amphetamine produces sensitized increases in locomotion and extracellular dopamine preferentially in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats administered repeated cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1995 Nov; 275(2):1019-29. PMID: 7473128.
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    266. Churchill L, Roques BP, Kalivas PW. Dopamine depletion augments endogenous opioid-induced locomotion in the nucleus accumbens using both mu 1 and delta opioid receptors. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Aug; 120(3):347-55. PMID: 8524983.
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    267. Kalivas PW. Can EAA transmission play a ubiquitous role in drug-induced neural plasticity? Commentary on Stephens, 'A glutamatergic hypothesis of drug dependence: extrapolations from benzodiazepine receptor ligands' Behav Pharmacol. 1995 Aug; 6(5 And 6):452-454. PMID: 11224353.
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    268. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. D1 receptors modulate glutamate transmission in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci. 1995 Jul; 15(7 Pt 2):5379-88. PMID: 7623160.
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    269. Pierce RC, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Sensitization to cocaine and dopamine autoreceptor subsensitivity in the nucleus accumbens. Synapse. 1995 May; 20(1):33-6. PMID: 7624827.
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    270. Bell K, Churchill L, Kalivas PW. GABAergic projection from the ventral pallidum and globus pallidus to the subthalamic nucleus. Synapse. 1995 May; 20(1):10-8. PMID: 7624824.
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    271. Sorg BA, Guminski BJ, Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. Cocaine alters glutamic acid decarboxylase differentially in the nucleus accumbens core and shell. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1995 Apr; 29(2):381-6. PMID: 7609627.
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    272. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Selective activation of dopamine transmission in the shell of the nucleus accumbens by stress. Brain Res. 1995 Mar 27; 675(1-2):325-8. PMID: 7796146.
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    273. Kalivas PW. Interactions between dopamine and excitatory amino acids in behavioral sensitization to psychostimulants. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1995 Feb; 37(2):95-100. PMID: 7758408.
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    274. Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. The role of mesoaccumbens--pallidal circuitry in novelty-induced behavioral activation. Neuroscience. 1995 Feb; 64(3):587-97. PMID: 7715773.
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    275. Hooks MS, Sorg BA, Kalivas PW. The relationship between MRNA levels and the locomotor response to novelty. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 14; 663(2):312-6. PMID: 7874516.
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    276. Hooks MS, Jones DN, Holtzman SG, Juncos JL, Kalivas PW, Justice JB. Individual differences in behavior following amphetamine, GBR-12909, or apomorphine but not SKF-38393 or quinpirole. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 Oct; 116(2):217-25. PMID: 7862951.
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    277. Hooks MS, Juncos JL, Justice JB, Meiergerd SM, Povlock SL, Schenk JO, Kalivas PW. Individual locomotor response to novelty predicts selective alterations in D1 and D2 receptors and mRNAs. J Neurosci. 1994 Oct; 14(10):6144-52. PMID: 7931568.
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    278. White SR, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine depresses glutamate-evoked neuronal firing and increases extracellular levels of dopamine and serotonin in the nucleus accumbens in vivo. Neuroscience. 1994 Sep; 62(1):41-50. PMID: 7816211.
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    279. Churchill L, Kalivas PW. A topographically organized gamma-aminobutyric acid projection from the ventral pallidum to the nucleus accumbens in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1994 Jul 22; 345(4):579-95. PMID: 7962701.
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    280. Sorg BA, Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. Neuroanatomy and neurochemical mechanisms of time-dependent sensitization. Toxicol Ind Health. 1994 Jul-Oct; 10(4-5):369-86. PMID: 7778104.
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    281. Hooks MS, Duffy P, Striplin C, Kalivas PW. Behavioral and neurochemical sensitization following cocaine self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 Jun; 115(1-2):265-72. PMID: 7862906.
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    282. Hooks MS, Kalivas PW. Involvement of dopamine and excitatory amino acid transmission in novelty-induced motor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Jun; 269(3):976-88. PMID: 7516970.
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    283. Klitenick MA, Kalivas PW. Behavioral and neurochemical studies of opioid effects in the pedunculopontine nucleus and mediodorsal thalamus. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994 Apr; 269(1):437-48. PMID: 8169850.
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    284. Kalivas PW. Blockade of neurotensin-induced motor activity by inhibition of protein kinase. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 Feb; 114(1):175-80. PMID: 7846201.
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    285. Kalivas PW, Churchill L, Klitenick MA. GABA and enkephalin projection from the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum to the ventral tegmental area. Neuroscience. 1993 Dec; 57(4):1047-60. PMID: 7508582.
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    286. Alesdatter JE, Kalivas PW. Inhibition of mu opioid-induced motor activity in the ventral pallidum by D1 receptor blockade. Behav Pharmacol. 1993 Dec; 4(6):645-651. PMID: 11224233.
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    287. Kalivas PW, Alesdatter JE. Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor stimulation in the ventral tegmental area and amygdala in behavioral sensitization to cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Oct; 267(1):486-95. PMID: 8229779.
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    288. See RE, Striplin C, Kalivas PW. Chronic haloperidol does not alter G protein alpha-subunit levels in rats. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1993 Aug; 19(3):219-21. PMID: 8412564.
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    289. Sorg BA, Chen SY, Kalivas PW. Time course of tyrosine hydroxylase expression after behavioral sensitization to cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jul; 266(1):424-30. PMID: 8101222.
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    290. Striplin CD, Kalivas PW. Robustness of G protein changes in cocaine sensitization shown with immunoblotting. Synapse. 1993 May; 14(1):10-5. PMID: 8511715.
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    291. Sorg BA, Kalivas PW. Effects of cocaine and footshock stress on extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience. 1993 Apr; 53(3):695-703. PMID: 7683777.
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    292. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Time course of extracellular dopamine and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. I. Dopamine axon terminals. J Neurosci. 1993 Jan; 13(1):266-75. PMID: 8423473.
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    293. Kalivas PW. Neurotransmitter regulation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1993 Jan-Apr; 18(1):75-113. PMID: 8096779.
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    294. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Time course of extracellular dopamine and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. II. Dopamine perikarya. J Neurosci. 1993 Jan; 13(1):276-84. PMID: 8380850.
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    295. Kalivas PW, Sorg BA, Hooks MS. The pharmacology and neural circuitry of sensitization to psychostimulants. Behav Pharmacol. 1993; 4(4):315-334. PMID: 11224200.
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    296. Daugé V, Kalivas PW, Duffy T, Roques BP. Effect of inhibiting enkephalin catabolism in the VTA on motor activity and extracellular dopamine. Brain Res. 1992 Dec 25; 599(2):209-14. PMID: 1291031.
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    297. Klitenick MA, Deutch AY, Churchill L, Kalivas PW. Topography and functional role of dopaminergic projections from the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum to the ventral pallidum. Neuroscience. 1992 Sep; 50(2):371-86. PMID: 1279461.
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    298. Klitenick MA, DeWitte P, Kalivas PW. Regulation of somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area by opioids and GABA: an in vivo microdialysis study. J Neurosci. 1992 Jul; 12(7):2623-32. PMID: 1319478.
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    299. Kalivas PW, Striplin CD, Steketee JD, Klitenick MA, Duffy P. Cellular mechanisms of behavioral sensitization to drugs of abuse. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Jun 28; 654:128-35. PMID: 1632577.
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    300. Bourdelais AJ, Kalivas PW. Modulation of extracellular gamma-aminobutyric acid in the ventral pallidum using in vivo microdialysis. J Neurochem. 1992 Jun; 58(6):2311-20. PMID: 1315380.
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    301. Churchill L, Cross RS, Pazdernik TL, Nelson SR, Zahm DS, Heimer L, Kalivas PW. Patterns of glucose use after bicuculline-induced convulsions in relationship to gamma-aminobutyric acid and mu-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum--functional markers for the ventral pallidum. Brain Res. 1992 May 22; 581(1):39-45. PMID: 1379869.
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    302. Striplin CD, Kalivas PW. Correlation between behavioral sensitization to cocaine and G protein ADP-ribosylation in the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res. 1992 May 08; 579(2):181-6. PMID: 1628210.
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    303. Churchill L, Kalivas PW. Dopamine depletion produces augmented behavioral responses to a mu-, but not a delta-opioid receptor agonist in the nucleus accumbens: lack of a role for receptor upregulation. Synapse. 1992 May; 11(1):47-57. PMID: 1318584.
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    304. Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Microinjection of the D2 agonist quinpirole into the A10 dopamine region blocks amphetamine-, but not cocaine-stimulated motor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 May; 261(2):811-8. PMID: 1349649.
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    305. Bourdelais A, Kalivas PW. Apomorphine decreases extracellular GABA in the ventral pallidum of rats with 6-OHDA lesions in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1992 Apr 17; 577(2):306-11. PMID: 1606502.
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    306. Steketee JD, Striplin CD, Murray TF, Kalivas PW. Pertussis toxin in the A10 region increases dopamine synthesis and metabolism. J Neurochem. 1992 Mar; 58(3):811-6. PMID: 1346627.
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    307. Steketee JD, Sorg BA, Kalivas PW. The role of the nucleus accumbens in sensitization to drugs of abuse. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1992 Mar; 16(2):237-46. PMID: 1579639.
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    308. Churchill L, Austin MC, Kalivas PW. Dopamine and endogenous opioid regulation of picrotoxin-induced locomotion in the ventral pallidum after dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1992; 108(1-2):141-6. PMID: 1410135.
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    309. Churchill L, Dilts RP, Kalivas PW. Autoradiographic localization of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors within the ventral tegmental area. Neurochem Res. 1992 Jan; 17(1):101-6. PMID: 1311431.
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    310. Kalivas PW. Neural substrate of sensitization to psychostimulants. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992; 15 Suppl 1 Pt A:648A-649A. PMID: 1354070.
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    311. Kalivas PW, Steketee JD. Possible transduction mechanisms mediating the acute and sensitized response to neurotensin in the ventral tegmental area. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992; 668:157-64. PMID: 1334385.
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    312. See RE, Sorg BA, Chapman MA, Kalivas PW. In vivo assessment of release and metabolism of dopamine in the ventrolateral striatum of awake rats following administration of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor agonists and antagonists. Neuropharmacology. 1991 Dec; 30(12A):1269-74. PMID: 1686300.
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    313. Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Sensitization to psychostimulants and stress after injection of pertussis toxin into the A10 dopamine region. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1991 Nov; 259(2):916-24. PMID: 1941636.
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    314. Sorg BA, Kalivas PW. Effects of cocaine and footshock stress on extracellular dopamine levels in the ventral striatum. Brain Res. 1991 Sep 13; 559(1):29-36. PMID: 1782559.
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    315. Samathanam GK, White SR, Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan on extracellular serotonin in the spinal cord of rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Brain Res. 1991 Sep 13; 559(1):37-43. PMID: 1723645.
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    316. Kalivas PW, Stewart J. Dopamine transmission in the initiation and expression of drug- and stress-induced sensitization of motor activity. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1991 Sep-Dec; 16(3):223-44. PMID: 1665095.
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    317. Bourdelais A, Kalivas PW. High sensitivity HPLC assay for GABA in brain dialysis studies. J Neurosci Methods. 1991 Sep; 39(2):115-21. PMID: 1798342.
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    318. Samson HH, Tolliver GA, Haraguchi M, Kalivas PW. Effects of d-amphetamine injected into the nucleus accumbens on ethanol reinforced behavior. Brain Res Bull. 1991 Aug; 27(2):267-71. PMID: 1683808.
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    319. Churchill L, Bourdelais A, Austin MC, Lolait SJ, Mahan LC, O'Carroll AM, Kalivas PW. GABAA receptors containing alpha 1 and beta 2 subunits are mainly localized on neurons in the ventral pallidum. Synapse. 1991 Jun; 8(2):75-85. PMID: 1652796.
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    320. Steketee JD, Striplin CD, Murray TF, Kalivas PW. Possible role for G-proteins in behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Brain Res. 1991 Apr 05; 545(1-2):287-91. PMID: 1907213.
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    321. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. A comparison of axonal and somatodendritic dopamine release using in vivo dialysis. J Neurochem. 1991 Mar; 56(3):961-7. PMID: 1993900.
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    322. Austin MC, Kalivas PW. Dopaminergic involvement in locomotion elicited from the ventral pallidum/substantia innominata. Brain Res. 1991 Feb 22; 542(1):123-31. PMID: 2054650.
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    323. Churchill L, Bourdelais A, Austin M, Zahm DS, Kalivas PW. gamma-Aminobutyric acid and mu-opioid receptor localization and adaptation in the basal forebrain. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 295:101-17. PMID: 1663697.
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    324. Heimer L, Zahm DS, Churchill L, Kalivas PW, Wohltmann C. Specificity in the projection patterns of accumbal core and shell in the rat. Neuroscience. 1991; 41(1):89-125. PMID: 2057066.
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    325. Kalivas PW, Klitenick MA, Hagler H, Austin MC. GABAergic and enkephalinergic regulation of locomotion in the ventral pallidum: involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 295:315-26. PMID: 1776575.
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    326. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Effect of acute and daily neurotensin and enkephalin treatments on extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 1990 Sep; 10(9):2940-9. PMID: 1697899.
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    327. Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Effect of microinjections of apamin into the A10 dopamine region of rats: a behavioral and neurochemical analysis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Aug; 254(2):711-9. PMID: 1696632.
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    328. Rowe BP, Kalivas PW, Speth RC. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptor binding sites on noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus of the rat. J Neurochem. 1990 Aug; 55(2):533-40. PMID: 2115071.
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    329. Bourdelais A, Kalivas PW. Amphetamine lowers extracellular GABA concentration in the ventral pallidum. Brain Res. 1990 May 14; 516(1):132-6. PMID: 2364275.
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    330. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Eberhardt H. Modulation of A10 dopamine neurons by gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 May; 253(2):858-66. PMID: 2160011.
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    331. Finnell RH, Toloyan S, van Waes M, Kalivas PW. Preliminary evidence for a cocaine-induced embryopathy in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1990 Apr; 103(2):228-37. PMID: 2330587.
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    332. Adachi DK, Kalivas PW, Schenk JO. Neurotensin binding to dopamine. J Neurochem. 1990 Apr; 54(4):1321-8. PMID: 2313290.
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    333. Churchill L, Dilts RP, Kalivas PW. Changes in gamma-aminobutyric acid, mu-opioid and neurotensin receptors in the accumbens-pallidal projection after discrete quinolinic acid lesions in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1990 Mar 12; 511(1):41-54. PMID: 2158856.
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    334. Austin MC, Kalivas PW. Enkephalinergic and GABAergic modulation of motor activity in the ventral pallidum. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Mar; 252(3):1370-7. PMID: 2319472.
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    335. Steketee JD, Kalivas PW. Sensitization to cocaine produced by injection of pertussis toxin into the A10 dopamine region. NIDA Res Monogr. 1990; 105:545-6. PMID: 1908559.
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    336. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Effect of acute and daily cocaine treatment on extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Synapse. 1990; 5(1):48-58. PMID: 2300906.
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    337. Dilts RP, Kalivas PW. Autoradiographic localization of delta opioid receptors within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system using radioiodinated [2-D-penicillamine, 5-D-penicillamine]enkephalin (125I-DPDPE). Synapse. 1990; 6(2):121-32. PMID: 1978419.
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    338. Samathanam G, Duffy P, Kalivas PW, White SR. A comparison of 5-hydroxytryptophan effects on rat lumbar spinal cord serotonin release and monosynaptic response amplitude. Brain Res. 1989 Oct 30; 501(1):179-82. PMID: 2804694.
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    339. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Barrow J. Regulation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system by glutamic acid receptor subtypes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Oct; 251(1):378-87. PMID: 2552079.
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    340. Austin MC, Kalivas PW. Blockade of enkephalinergic and GABAergic mediated locomotion in the nucleus accumbens by muscimol in the ventral pallidum. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1989 Aug; 50(4):487-90. PMID: 2779013.
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    341. Adams JD, Kalivas PW, Miller CA. The acute histopathology of MPTP in the mouse CNS. Brain Res Bull. 1989 Jul-Aug; 23(1-2):1-17. PMID: 2804701.
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    342. Dilts RP, Kalivas PW. Autoradiographic localization of mu-opioid and neurotensin receptors within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Brain Res. 1989 May 29; 488(1-2):311-27. PMID: 2545303.
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    343. Kalivas PW, Bourdelais A, Abhold R, Abbott L. Somatodendritic release of endogenous dopamine: in vivo dialysis in the A10 dopamine region. Neurosci Lett. 1989 May 22; 100(1-3):215-20. PMID: 2761771.
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    344. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Similar effects of daily cocaine and stress on mesocorticolimbic dopamine neurotransmission in the rat. Biol Psychiatry. 1989 Apr 01; 25(7):913-28. PMID: 2541803.
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    345. Kalivas PW, Weber B. Amphetamine injection into the ventral mesencephalon sensitizes rats to peripheral amphetamine and cocaine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 Jun; 245(3):1095-102. PMID: 3385638.
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    346. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, DuMars LA, Skinner C. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of acute and daily cocaine administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988 May; 245(2):485-92. PMID: 3130474.
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    347. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Effects of daily cocaine and morphine treatment on somatodendritic and terminal field dopamine release. J Neurochem. 1988 May; 50(5):1498-504. PMID: 3361305.
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    348. Austin MC, Kalivas PW. The effect of cholinergic stimulation in the nucleus accumbens on locomotor behavior. Brain Res. 1988 Feb 16; 441(1-2):209-14. PMID: 3359231.
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    349. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Dilts R, Abhold R. Enkephalin modulation of A10 dopamine neurons: a role in dopamine sensitization. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988; 537:405-14. PMID: 3059934.
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    350. DuMars LA, Rodger LD, Kalivas PW. Behavioral cross-sensitization between cocaine and enkephalin in the A10 dopamine region. Behav Brain Res. 1988 Jan; 27(1):87-91. PMID: 3342116.
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    351. Kalivas PW, Duffy P, Latimer LG. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of corticotropin-releasing factor in the ventral tegmental area of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Sep; 242(3):757-63. PMID: 3498816.
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    352. Vezina P, Kalivas PW, Stewart J. Sensitization occurs to the locomotor effects of morphine and the specific mu opioid receptor agonist, DAGO, administered repeatedly to the ventral tegmental area but not to the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 04; 417(1):51-8. PMID: 3040185.
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    353. Kalivas PW, Abhold R. Enkephalin release into the ventral tegmental area in response to stress: modulation of mesocorticolimbic dopamine. Brain Res. 1987 Jun 30; 414(2):339-48. PMID: 3620936.
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    354. Latimer LG, Duffy P, Kalivas PW. Mu opioid receptor involvement in enkephalin activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Apr; 241(1):328-37. PMID: 3033208.
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    355. Kalivas PW, Duffy P. Sensitization to repeated morphine injection in the rat: possible involvement of A10 dopamine neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1987 Apr; 241(1):204-12. PMID: 3572784.
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    356. Kalivas PW, Stanley D, Prange AJ. Interaction between thyrotropin-releasing hormone and the mesolimbic dopamine system. Neuropharmacology. 1987 Jan; 26(1):33-8. PMID: 3104814.
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    357. Hoffman NW, Gerall AA, Kalivas PW. Sexual refractoriness and locomotion effects on brain monoamines in the male rat. Physiol Behav. 1987; 41(6):563-9. PMID: 2450382.
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    358. Kalivas PW, Richardson-Carlson R, Duffy P. Neuromedin N mimics the actions of neurotensin in the ventral tegmental area but not in the nucleus accumbens. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1986 Sep; 238(3):1126-31. PMID: 3755755.
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    359. Kalivas PW, Richardson-Carlson R, Van Orden G. Cross-sensitization between foot shock stress and enkephalin-induced motor activity. Biol Psychiatry. 1986 Aug; 21(10):939-50. PMID: 3741911.
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    360. Kalivas PW, Richardson-Carlson R. Endogenous enkephalin modulation of dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area. Am J Physiol. 1986 Aug; 251(2 Pt 2):R243-9. PMID: 3017134.
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    361. Ritter RC, Kalivas P, Bernier S. Cholecystokinin-induced suppression of locomotion is attenuated in capsaicin pretreated rats. Peptides. 1986 Jul-Aug; 7(4):587-90. PMID: 3763436.
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    362. Kalivas PW, Taylor S. Behavioral and neurochemical effect of daily injection with neurotensin into the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res. 1985 Dec 09; 358(1-2):70-6. PMID: 4075132.
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    363. Kalivas PW, Taylor S, Miller JS. Sensitization to repeated enkephalin administration into the ventral tegmental area of the rat. I. Behavioral characterization. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Nov; 235(2):537-43. PMID: 2865357.
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    364. Kalivas PW. Sensitization to repeated enkephalin administration into the ventral tegmental area of the rat. II. Involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1985 Nov; 235(2):544-50. PMID: 4057084.
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    365. Kalivas PW, Bronson M. Mesolimbic dopamine lesions produce an augmented behavioral response to enkephalin. Neuropharmacology. 1985 Oct; 24(10):931-6. PMID: 3934576.
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    366. Kalivas PW, Deutch AY, Maggio JE, Mantyh PW, Roth RH. Substance K and substance P in the ventral tegmental area. Neurosci Lett. 1985 Jun 24; 57(3):241-6. PMID: 2412193.
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    367. Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Miller JS, Prange AJ. Microinjection of neurotensin into the ventral tegmental area produces hypothermia: evaluation of dopaminergic mediation. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 11; 326(2):219-27. PMID: 2982460.
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    368. Kalivas PW, Jennes L, Miller JS. A catecholaminergic projection from the ventral tegmental area to the diagonal band of Broca: modulation by neurotensin. Brain Res. 1985 Feb 11; 326(2):229-38. PMID: 2857589.
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    369. Kalivas PW, Miller JS. Dopamine microinjection into the nucleus accumbens: correlation between metabolism and behavior. Biochem Pharmacol. 1985 Jan 15; 34(2):284-6. PMID: 3966931.
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    370. Deutch AY, Maggio JE, Bannon MJ, Kalivas PW, Tam SY, Goldstein M, Roth RH. Substance K and substance P differentially modulate mesolimbic and mesocortical systems. Peptides. 1985; 6 Suppl 2:113-22. PMID: 2417207.
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    371. Kalivas P. Substance P modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1985; 192:403-8. PMID: 2417255.
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    372. Kalivas PW. Interactions between neuropeptides and dopamine neurons in the ventromedial mesencephalon. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1985; 9(4):573-87. PMID: 2417173.
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    373. Long JB, Kalivas PW, Youngblood WW, Prange AJ, Kizer JS. Possible involvement of serotonergic neurotransmission in neurotensin but not morphine analgesia. Brain Res. 1984 Sep 17; 310(1):35-41. PMID: 6089968.
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    374. Kalivas PW, Miller JS. Substance P modulation of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Neurosci Lett. 1984 Jul 13; 48(1):55-9. PMID: 6206446.
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    375. Kalivas PW. Neurotensin in the ventromedial mesencephalon of the rat: anatomical and functional considerations. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Jul 10; 226(4):495-507. PMID: 6086729.
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    376. Schulz DW, Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Bombesin-induced locomotor hyperactivity: evaluation of the involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system. Brain Res. 1984 Jun 25; 304(2):377-82. PMID: 6744049.
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    377. Kalivas PW, Miller JS. Neurotensin neurons in the ventral tegmental area project to the medial nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 1984 May 21; 300(1):157-60. PMID: 6733462.
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    378. Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Neurotensin microinjection into the nucleus accumbens antagonizes dopamine-induced increase in locomotion and rearing. Neuroscience. 1984 Apr; 11(4):919-30. PMID: 6738859.
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    379. Kalivas PW. Evidence for interactions of endogenous peptides with the mesolimbic dopamine system. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1984; 20(3):354-7. PMID: 6473629.
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    380. Nemeroff CB, Kalivas PW, Golden RN, Prange AJ. Behavioral effects of hypothalamic hypophysiotropic hormones, neurotensin, substance P and other neuropeptides. Pharmacol Ther. 1984; 24(1):1-56. PMID: 6203131.
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    381. Kalivas PW, Widerlöv E, Stanley D, Breese G, Prange AJ. Enkephalin action on the mesolimbic system: a dopamine-dependent and a dopamine-independent increase in locomotor activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Oct; 227(1):229-37. PMID: 6620168.
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    382. Widerlöv E, Kalivas PW, Lewis MH, Prange AJ, Breese GR. Influence of cholecystokinin on central monoaminergic pathways. Regul Pept. 1983 May; 6(2):99-109. PMID: 6308717.
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    383. Kalivas PW, Burgess SK, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of neurotensin microinjection into the ventral tegmental area of the rat. Neuroscience. 1983 Mar; 8(3):495-505. PMID: 6406930.
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    384. Kalivas PW, Gau BA, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Antinociception after microinjection of neurotensin into the central amygdaloid nucleus of the rat. Brain Res. 1982 Jul 15; 243(2):279-86. PMID: 7104740.
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    385. Kalivas PW. Histamine-induced arousal in the conscious and pentobarbital-pretreated rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1982 Jul; 222(1):37-42. PMID: 7086707.
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    386. Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Neuroanatomical site specific modulation of spontaneous motor activity by neurotensin. Eur J Pharmacol. 1982 Mar 26; 78(4):471-4. PMID: 7075680.
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    387. Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Neuroanatomical sites of action of neurotensin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 400:307-18. PMID: 6963113.
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    388. Nemeroff CB, Hernandez DE, Luttinger D, Kalivas PW, Prange AJ. Interactions of neurotensin with brain dopamine systems. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 400:330-44. PMID: 6132577.
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    389. Kalivas PW, Nemeroff CB, Prange AJ. Increase in spontaneous motor activity following infusion of neurotensin into the ventral tegmental area. Brain Res. 1981 Dec 21; 229(2):525-9. PMID: 7306825.
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    390. Kalivas PW, Simasko SM, Horita A. Effect of septohippocampal lesions on thyrotropin-releasing hormone antagonism of pentobarbital narcosis. Brain Res. 1981 Oct 19; 222(2):253-65. PMID: 6793211.
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    391. Kalivas PW, Horita A. Neuroanatomical dissociation of thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced shaking behavior and thermogenic mechanisms. Regul Pept. 1981 Feb; 1(5):335-45. PMID: 6789407.
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    392. Santori EM, Schmidt DE, Kalivas PW, Horita A. Failure of muscarinic blockade to antagonize analepsis induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone and MK-771 in the rat. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1981; 74(1):13-6. PMID: 6115440.
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    393. Kalivas PW, Horita A. Response to intracerebral administration of cerebrospinal fluid in the pentobarbital pretreated rat. Neuropharmacology. 1980 May; 19(5):497-9. PMID: 7393416.
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    394. Kalivas PW, Horita A. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: neurogenesis of actions in the pentobarbital narcotized rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1980 Feb; 212(2):203-10. PMID: 6101346.
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    395. Kalivas PW, Horita A. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone: central site of action in antagonism of pentobarbital narcosis. Nature. 1979 Mar 29; 278(5703):461-3. PMID: 109769.
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