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Howard C Becker

Title
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentPsychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
AddressP.O. Box MSC 861
629 A
Thurmond Gazes - 30 Courtenay Drive
Phone843-792-5207
Fax843-792-7353
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    Dr. Becker's overall research focus is directed at elucidating neurobiological mechanisms and environmental factors underlying the addictive effects of alcohol, including adaptive changes resulting from chronic alcohol exposure that play a role in promoting excessive alcohol consumption and enhanced relapse vulnerability. He leads a multidisciplinary research program involving use of animals models for studying factors (e.g., stress) that facilitate transition to uncontrolled drinking, with the goal of identifying and evaluating new therapeutic targets and strategies for treating problem drinking and alcoholism. His research is supported by numerous grants from NIH/NIAA and the VA, and he serves on several advisory and editorial boards. As Director of the Charleston Alcohol Research Center, he coordinates and actively promotes integration of preclinical and clinical investigations that focus on the general theme of treatment and treatment implications for alcohol use disorders. Additionally, he is actively engaged in mentoring graduate and postdoctoral students as well as junior faculty.

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    alcohol dependence, relapse drinking, treatment, animal models

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    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Haun HL, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Kappa opioid receptors in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis regulate binge-like alcohol consumption in male and female mice. Neuropharmacology. 2020 Feb 02; 107984. PMID: 32023486.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Bogenpohl JW, Smith ML, Farris SP, Dumur CI, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Grant KA, Miles MF. Cross-Species Co-analysis of Prefrontal Cortex Chronic Ethanol Transcriptome Responses in Mice and Monkeys. Front Mol Neurosci. 2019; 12:197. PMID: 31456662.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Smith RJ, Anderson RI, Haun HL, Mulholland PJ, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Dynamic c-Fos changes in mouse brain during acute and protracted withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and relapse drinking. Addict Biol. 2019 Jul 09; e12804. PMID: 31288295.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Smith ML, Lopez MF, Archer KJ, Wolen AR, Becker HC, Miles MF. Correction: Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption. PLoS One. 2019; 14(6):e0218700. PMID: 31211793.
      View in: PubMed
    5. McDonald LT, Lopez MF, Helke KL, McCrackin MA, Cray JJ, Becker HC, LaRue AC. Early Blood Profile of C57BL/6 Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress. Front Psychiatry. 2019; 10:230. PMID: 31068843.
      View in: PubMed
    6. King CE, Becker HC. Oxytocin attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behavior in male and female mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2019 Sep; 236(9):2613-2622. PMID: 30923836.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Solomon MG, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Brain Regional and Temporal Changes in BDNF mRNA and microRNA-206 Expression in Mice Exposed to Repeated Cycles of Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Forced Swim Stress. Neuroscience. 2019 05 15; 406:617-625. PMID: 30790666.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Anderson RI, Lopez MF, Griffin WC, Haun HL, Bloodgood DW, Pati D, Boyt KM, Kash TL, Becker HC. Dynorphin-kappa opioid receptor activity in the central amygdala modulates binge-like alcohol drinking in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 05; 44(6):1084-1092. PMID: 30555162.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Leong KC, Cox S, King C, Becker H, Reichel CM. Oxytocin and Rodent Models of Addiction. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2018; 140:201-247. PMID: 30193705.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Haun HL, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Solomon MG, Mulholland PJ, Woodward JJ, McGinty JF, Ron D, Becker HC. Increasing Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in medial prefrontal cortex selectively reduces excessive drinking in ethanol dependent mice. Neuropharmacology. 2018 09 15; 140:35-42. PMID: 30056122.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Harlan BA, Becker HC, Woodward JJ, Riegel AC. Opposing actions of CRF-R1 and CB1 receptors on VTA-GABAergic plasticity following chronic exposure to ethanol. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 09; 43(10):2064-2074. PMID: 29946104.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Osterndorff-Kahanek EA, Tiwari GR, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Harris RA, Mayfield RD. Long-term ethanol exposure: Temporal pattern of microRNA expression and associated mRNA gene networks in mouse brain. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190841. PMID: 29315347.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Anderson RI, Moorman DE, Becker HC. Contribution of Dynorphin and Orexin Neuropeptide Systems to the Motivational Effects of Alcohol. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2018; 248:473-503. PMID: 29526023.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Laguesse S, Morisot N, Shin JH, Liu F, Adrover MF, Sakhai SA, Lopez MF, Phamluong K, Griffin WC, Becker HC, Bender KJ, Alvarez VA, Ron D. Prosapip1-Dependent Synaptic Adaptations in the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Alcohol Intake, Seeking, and Reward. Neuron. 2017 Sep 27; 96(1):145-159.e8. PMID: 28890345.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Rodberg EM, den Hartog CR, Anderson RI, Becker HC, Moorman DE, Vazey EM. Stress Facilitates the Development of Cognitive Dysfunction After Chronic Ethanol Exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Sep; 41(9):1574-1583. PMID: 28753742.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Anderson RI, Becker HC. Role of the Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor System in the Motivational Effects of Ethanol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 Aug; 41(8):1402-1418. PMID: 28425121.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Becker HC. Influence of stress associated with chronic alcohol exposure on drinking. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Aug 01; 122:115-126. PMID: 28431971.
      View in: PubMed
    18. King CE, Griffin WC, Luderman LN, Kates MM, McGinty JF, Becker HC. Oxytocin Reduces Ethanol Self-Administration in Mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2017 May; 41(5):955-964. PMID: 28212464.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Porcu P, O'Buckley TK, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Miles MF, Williams RW, Morrow AL. Initial genetic dissection of serum neuroactive steroids following chronic intermittent ethanol across BXD mouse strains. Alcohol. 2017 Feb; 58:107-125. PMID: 27884493.
      View in: PubMed
    20. van der Vaart AD, Wolstenholme JT, Smith ML, Harris GM, Lopez MF, Wolen AR, Becker HC, Williams RW, Miles MF. The allostatic impact of chronic ethanol on gene expression: A genetic analysis of chronic intermittent ethanol treatment in the BXD cohort. Alcohol. 2017 Feb; 58:93-106. PMID: 27838001.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Lopez MF, Miles MF, Williams RW, Becker HC. Variable effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on ethanol drinking in a genetically diverse mouse cohort. Alcohol. 2017 Feb; 58:73-82. PMID: 27793543.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Rinker JA, Fulmer DB, Trantham-Davidson H, Smith ML, Williams RW, Lopez MF, Randall PK, Chandler LJ, Miles MF, Becker HC, Mulholland PJ. Differential potassium channel gene regulation in BXD mice reveals novel targets for pharmacogenetic therapies to reduce heavy alcohol drinking. Alcohol. 2017 Feb; 58:33-45. PMID: 27432260.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Siciliano CA, Locke JL, Mathews TA, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Jones SR. Dopamine synthesis in alcohol drinking-prone and -resistant mouse strains. Alcohol. 2017 Feb; 58:25-32. PMID: 27425261.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Rose JH, Karkhanis AN, Chen R, Gioia D, Lopez MF, Becker HC, McCool BA, Jones SR. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016 05; 19(5). PMID: 26625893.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Becker HC, Lopez MF. An Animal Model of Alcohol Dependence to Screen Medications for Treating Alcoholism. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2016; 126:157-77. PMID: 27055614.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Anderson RI, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Forced swim stress increases ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 06; 233(11):2035-2043. PMID: 26935824.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Anderson RI, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Stress-Induced Enhancement of Ethanol Intake in C57BL/6J Mice with a History of Chronic Ethanol Exposure: Involvement of Kappa Opioid Receptors. Front Cell Neurosci. 2016; 10:45. PMID: 26941607.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Lopez MF, Moorman DE, Aston-Jones G, Becker HC. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice. Brain Res. 2016 Apr 01; 1636:74-80. PMID: 26851547.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Lopez MF, Anderson RI, Becker HC. Effect of different stressors on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and nondependent C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol. 2016 Mar; 51:17-23. PMID: 26992696.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Smith ML, Lopez MF, Archer KJ, Wolen AR, Becker HC, Miles MF. Time-Course Analysis of Brain Regional Expression Network Responses to Chronic Intermittent Ethanol and Withdrawal: Implications for Mechanisms Underlying Excessive Ethanol Consumption. PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146257. PMID: 26730594.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Samantaray S, Knaryan VH, Patel KS, Mulholland PJ, Becker HC, Banik NL. Chronic intermittent ethanol induced axon and myelin degeneration is attenuated by calpain inhibition. Brain Res. 2015 Oct 05; 1622:7-21. PMID: 26100335.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Suchankova P, Yan J, Schwandt ML, Stangl BL, Caparelli EC, Momenan R, Jerlhag E, Engel JA, Hodgkinson CA, Egli M, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Goldman D, Heilig M, Ramchandani VA, Leggio L. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence. Transl Psychiatry. 2015 Jun 16; 5:e583. PMID: 26080318.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Cui C, Noronha A, Warren KR, Koob GF, Sinha R, Thakkar M, Matochik J, Crews FT, Chandler LJ, Pfefferbaum A, Becker HC, Lovinger D, Everitt BJ, Egli M, Mandyam CD, Fein G, Potenza MN, Harris RA, Grant KA, Roberto M, Meyerhoff DJ, Sullivan EV. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence. Alcohol. 2015 Aug; 49(5):435-52. PMID: 26074423.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Becker HC. Challenges and exciting new opportunities to advance personalized treatment for alcohol use disorder. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015 Apr; 39(4):587-8. PMID: 25833017.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Osterndorff-Kahanek EA, Becker HC, Lopez MF, Farris SP, Tiwari GR, Nunez YO, Harris RA, Mayfield RD. Chronic ethanol exposure produces time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks. PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0121522. PMID: 25803291.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Griffin WC, Ramachandra VS, Knackstedt LA, Becker HC. Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure increases basal glutamate in the nucleus accumbens of mice without affecting glutamate transport. Front Pharmacol. 2015; 6:27. PMID: 25755641.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Padula AE, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Nimitvilai S, Cannady R, McGuier NS, Chesler EJ, Miles MF, Williams RW, Randall PK, Woodward JJ, Becker HC, Mulholland PJ. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jul; 40(8):1928-39. PMID: 25662840.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Maldonado-Devincci AM, Cook JB, O'Buckley TK, Morrow DH, McKinley RE, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Morrow AL. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal alters (3a,5a)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one immunostaining in cortical and limbic brain regions of C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Oct; 38(10):2561-71. PMID: 25293837.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Lopez MF, Becker HC, Chandler LJ. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol. Alcohol. 2014 Nov; 48(7):639-45. PMID: 25266936.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Becker HC, Ron D. Animal models of excessive alcohol consumption: recent advances and future challenges. Alcohol. 2014 May; 48(3):205-8. PMID: 24811154.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lopez MF, Becker HC. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice. Alcohol. 2014 May; 48(3):295-9. PMID: 24721194.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Anderson RI, Becker HC, Adams BL, Jesudason CD, Rorick-Kehn LM. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists reduce ethanol self-administration in high-drinking rodent models. Front Neurosci. 2014; 8:33. PMID: 24616657.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Becker HC, Mulholland PJ. Neurochemical mechanisms of alcohol withdrawal. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014; 125:133-56. PMID: 25307573.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Bell RL, Lopez MF, Cui C, Egli M, Johnson KW, Franklin KM, Becker HC. Ibudilast reduces alcohol drinking in multiple animal models of alcohol dependence. Addict Biol. 2015 Jan; 20(1):38-42. PMID: 24215262.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Griffin WC, Haun HL, Hazelbaker CL, Ramachandra VS, Becker HC. Increased extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens promotes excessive ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2014 Feb; 39(3):707-17. PMID: 24067300.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Samantaray S, Patel KS, Knaryan VH, Thakore NP, Roudabush S, Heissenbuttle JH, Becker HC, Banik NL. Calpain inhibition prevents ethanol-induced alterations in spinal motoneurons. Neurochem Res. 2013 Aug; 38(8):1734-41. PMID: 23690229.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Padula AE, McGuier NS, Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Mulholland PJ. Novel anticonvulsants for reducing alcohol consumption: A review of evidence from preclinical rodent drinking models. OA Alcohol. 2013 Feb 01; 1(1):2. PMID: 24432188.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Carrara-Nascimento PF, Lopez MF, Becker HC, Olive MF, Camarini R. Similar ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice after chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013 Jun; 37(6):961-8. PMID: 23298188.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Becker HC. Animal models of excessive alcohol consumption in rodents. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2013; 13:355-77. PMID: 22371267.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Kroener S, Mulholland PJ, New NN, Gass JT, Becker HC, Chandler LJ. Chronic alcohol exposure alters behavioral and synaptic plasticity of the rodent prefrontal cortex. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37541. PMID: 22666364.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lopez MF, Griffin WC, Melendez RI, Becker HC. Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure leads to the development of tolerance to aversive effects of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012 Jul; 36(7):1180-7. PMID: 22309159.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Becker HC. Effects of alcohol dependence and withdrawal on stress responsiveness and alcohol consumption. Alcohol Res. 2012; 34(4):448-58. PMID: 23584111.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Badanich KA, Becker HC, Woodward JJ. Effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex-dependent behaviors in mice. Behav Neurosci. 2011 Dec; 125(6):879-91. PMID: 22122149.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Becker HC, Lopez MF, Doremus-Fitzwater TL. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011 Nov; 218(1):131-56. PMID: 21850445.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Badanich KA, Doremus-Fitzwater TL, Mulholland PJ, Randall PK, Delpire E, Becker HC. NR2B-deficient mice are more sensitive to the locomotor stimulant and depressant effects of ethanol. Genes Brain Behav. 2011 Oct; 10(7):805-816. PMID: 21762461.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Melendez RI, McGinty JF, Kalivas PW, Becker HC. Brain region-specific gene expression changes after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and early withdrawal in C57BL/6J mice. Addict Biol. 2012 Mar; 17(2):351-64. PMID: 21812870.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Lopez MF, Grahame NJ, Becker HC. Development of ethanol withdrawal-related sensitization and relapse drinking in mice selected for high- or low-ethanol preference. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 May; 35(5):953-62. PMID: 21314693.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Mulholland PJ, Becker HC, Woodward JJ, Chandler LJ. Small conductance calcium-activated potassium type 2 channels regulate alcohol-associated plasticity of glutamatergic synapses. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Apr 01; 69(7):625-32. PMID: 21056409.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lopez MF, Doremus-Fitzwater TL, Becker HC. Chronic social isolation and chronic variable stress during early development induce later elevated ethanol intake in adult C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol. 2011 Jun; 45(4):355-64. PMID: 20880662.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Henzler T, Hanley M, Arnoldi E, Bastarrika G, Schoepf UJ, Becker HC. Practical strategies for low radiation dose cardiac computed tomography. J Thorac Imaging. 2010 Aug; 25(3):213-20. PMID: 20711037.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Heilig M, Egli M, Crabbe JC, Becker HC. Acute withdrawal, protracted abstinence and negative affect in alcoholism: are they linked? Addict Biol. 2010 Apr; 15(2):169-84. PMID: 20148778.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Morrow AL, Biggio G, Serra M, Becker HC, Lopez MF, Porcu P, Alward SE, O'Buckley TK. The role of neuroactive steroids in ethanol/stress interactions: proceedings of symposium VII at the Volterra conference on alcohol and stress, May 2008. Alcohol. 2009 Nov; 43(7):521-30. PMID: 19913195.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Becker HC. Intensity and duration of chronic ethanol exposure is critical for subsequent escalation of voluntary ethanol drinking in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Nov; 33(11):1893-900. PMID: 19673744.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Kroener S, Chandler LJ, Phillips PE, Seamans JK. Dopamine modulates persistent synaptic activity and enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in the prefrontal cortex. PLoS One. 2009 Aug 05; 4(8):e6507. PMID: 19654866.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Myrick H, Malcolm R, Randall PK, Boyle E, Anton RF, Becker HC, Randall CL. A double-blind trial of gabapentin versus lorazepam in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009 Sep; 33(9):1582-8. PMID: 19485969.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Griffin WC, Lopez MF, Yanke AB, Middaugh LD, Becker HC. Repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in mice increases voluntary ethanol drinking and ethanol concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Jan; 201(4):569-80. PMID: 18791704.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Mulholland PJ, Carpenter-Hyland EP, Hearing MC, Becker HC, Woodward JJ, Chandler LJ. Glutamate transporters regulate extrasynaptic NMDA receptor modulation of Kv2.1 potassium channels. J Neurosci. 2008 Aug 27; 28(35):8801-9. PMID: 18753382.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Simms JA, Steensland P, Medina B, Abernathy KE, Chandler LJ, Wise R, Bartlett SE. Intermittent access to 20% ethanol induces high ethanol consumption in Long-Evans and Wistar rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Oct; 32(10):1816-23. PMID: 18671810.
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    69. Olive MF, Becker HC. Effects of the mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 and the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP on handling-induced convulsions during ethanol withdrawal in mice. Alcohol. 2008 May; 42(3):191-7. PMID: 18420113.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Becker HC. Alcohol dependence, withdrawal, and relapse. Alcohol Res Health. 2008; 31(4):348-61. PMID: 23584009.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Griffin WC, Middaugh LD, Becker HC. Voluntary ethanol drinking in mice and ethanol concentrations in the nucleus accumbens. Brain Res. 2007 Mar 23; 1138:208-13. PMID: 17275791.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Becker HC, Baros AM. Effect of duration and pattern of chronic ethanol exposure on tolerance to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Nov; 319(2):871-8. PMID: 16914560.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Goldowitz D, Matthews DB, Hamre KM, Mittleman G, Chesler EJ, Becker HC, Lopez MF, Jones SR, Mathews TA, Miles MF, Kerns R, Grant KA. Progress in using mouse inbred strains, consomics, and mutants to identify genes related to stress, anxiety, and alcohol phenotypes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Jun; 30(6):1066-78. PMID: 16737467.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Becker HC, Myrick H, Veatch LM. Pregabalin is effective against behavioral and electrographic seizures during alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Alcohol. 2006 Jul-Aug; 41(4):399-406. PMID: 16636010.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Hodge CW, Grant KA, Becker HC, Besheer J, Crissman AM, Platt DM, Shannon EE, Shelton KL. Understanding how the brain perceives alcohol: neurobiological basis of ethanol discrimination. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Feb; 30(2):203-13. PMID: 16441269.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Veatch LM, Becker HC. Lorazepam and MK-801 effects on behavioral and electrographic indices of alcohol withdrawal sensitization. Brain Res. 2005 Dec 14; 1065(1-2):92-106. PMID: 16313888.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Lopez MF, Becker HC. Effect of pattern and number of chronic ethanol exposures on subsequent voluntary ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Oct; 181(4):688-96. PMID: 16001125.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Little HJ, Stephens DN, Ripley TL, Borlikova G, Duka T, Schubert M, Albrecht D, Becker HC, Lopez MF, Weiss F, Drummond C, Peoples M, Cunningham C. Alcohol withdrawal and conditioning. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Mar; 29(3):453-64. PMID: 15770122.
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    79. Becker HC, Lopez MF. Increased ethanol drinking after repeated chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Dec; 28(12):1829-38. PMID: 15608599.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Crissman AM, Studders SL, Becker HC. Tolerance to the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol following chronic inhalation exposure to ethanol in C57BL/6J mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 15(8):569-75. PMID: 15577455.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Becker HC, Crissman AM, Studders S, Kelley BM, Middaugh LD. Differential neurosensitivity to the discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol in C57BL/6J and C3H/He mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 May; 28(5):712-9. PMID: 15166645.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Duka T, Gentry J, Malcolm R, Ripley TL, Borlikova G, Stephens DN, Veatch LM, Becker HC, Crews FT. Consequences of multiple withdrawals from alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004 Feb; 28(2):233-46. PMID: 15112931.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Veatch LM, Becker HC. Electrographic and behavioral indices of ethanol withdrawal sensitization. Brain Res. 2002 Aug 16; 946(2):272-82. PMID: 12137931.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Becker HC, Veatch LM. Effects of lorazepam treatment for multiple ethanol withdrawals in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2002 Mar; 26(3):371-80. PMID: 11923591.
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    85. Gonzalez LP, Veatch LM, Ticku MK, Becker HC. Alcohol withdrawal kindling: mechanisms and implications for treatment. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2001 May; 25(5 Suppl ISBRA):197S-201S. PMID: 11391071.
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    86. Becker HC. Animal models of alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Res Health. 2000; 24(2):105-13. PMID: 11199277.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Becker HC, Veatch LM, Diaz-Granados JL. Repeated ethanol withdrawal experience selectively alters sensitivity to different chemoconvulsant drugs in mice. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Sep; 139(1-2):145-53. PMID: 9768552.
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    88. Jarvis MF, Becker HC. Single and repeated episodes of ethanol withdrawal increase adenosine A1, but not A2A, receptor density in mouse brain. Brain Res. 1998 Mar 09; 786(1-2):80-8. PMID: 9554962.
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    89. Becker HC. Kindling in alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Health Res World. 1998; 22(1):25-33. PMID: 15706729.
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    90. Becker HC, Diaz-Granados JL, Weathersby RT. Repeated ethanol withdrawal experience increases the severity and duration of subsequent withdrawal seizures in mice. Alcohol. 1997 Jul-Aug; 14(4):319-26. PMID: 9209546.
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    91. Becker HC, Diaz-Granados JL, Hale RL. Exacerbation of ethanol withdrawal seizures in mice with a history of multiple withdrawal experience. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 May-Jun; 57(1-2):179-83. PMID: 9164570.
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    92. Becker HC, Diaz-Granados JL, Randall CL. Teratogenic actions of ethanol in the mouse: a minireview. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996 Dec; 55(4):501-13. PMID: 8981580.
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    93. Becker HC. The alcohol withdrawal "kindling" phenomenon: clinical and experimental findings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Nov; 20(8 Suppl):121A-124A. PMID: 8947249.
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    94. Salo AL, Randall CL, Becker HC. Effect of acute ethanol and cocaine administration on gestation days 14-17 in mice. Alcohol. 1996 Jul-Aug; 13(4):369-75. PMID: 8836326.
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    95. Becker HC, Jarvis MF. Chronic ethanol exposure selectively increases diazepam-insensitive [3H]RO15-4513 binding in mouse cerebellum. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Jan 18; 296(1):43-6. PMID: 8720475.
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    96. Salo AL, Randall CL, Becker HC, Patrick KS. Acute gestational cocaine exposure alone or in combination with low-dose ethanol does not influence prenatal mortality or fetal weight in mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 17(5):577-81. PMID: 8552004.
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    97. Becker HC, Weathersby RT, Hale RL. Prenatal ethanol exposure alters sensitivity to the effects of apomorphine given alone and in combination with ethanol on locomotor activity in adult male mouse offspring. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995 Jan-Feb; 17(1):57-64. PMID: 7708020.
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    98. Weathersby RT, Becker HC, Hale RL. Reduced sensitivity to the effects of clonidine on ethanol-stimulated locomotor activity in adult mouse offspring prenatally exposed to ethanol. Alcohol. 1994 Nov-Dec; 11(6):517-22. PMID: 7865154.
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    99. Becker HC. Positive relationship between the number of prior ethanol withdrawal episodes and the severity of subsequent withdrawal seizures. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1994 Sep; 116(1):26-32. PMID: 7862927.
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    100. Randall CL, Salo AL, Becker HC, Patrick KS. Cocaine does not influence the teratogenic effects of acute ethanol in mice. Reprod Toxicol. 1994 Jul-Aug; 8(4):341-50. PMID: 7949760.
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    101. Becker HC, Randall CL, Salo AL, Saulnier JL, Weathersby RT. Animal Research: Charting the Course for FAS. Alcohol Health Res World. 1994; 18(1):10-16. PMID: 31798139.
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    102. Becker HC, Hale RL, Boggan WO, Randall CL. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on later sensitivity to the low-dose stimulant actions of ethanol in mouse offspring: possible role of catecholamines. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993 Dec; 17(6):1325-36. PMID: 8116850.
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    103. Becker HC, Hale RL. Repeated episodes of ethanol withdrawal potentiate the severity of subsequent withdrawal seizures: an animal model of alcohol withdrawal "kindling". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1993 Feb; 17(1):94-8. PMID: 8452212.
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    104. Hale RL, Randall CL, Becker HC, Turner KP. Aspirin pretreatment reduces ethanol withdrawal severity in a mouse model of binge drinking. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 Dec; 43(4):1169-73. PMID: 1475301.
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    105. Hale RL, Randall CL, Becker HC, Middaugh LD. The effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on scentmarking in the C57BL/6J and C3H/He mouse strains. Alcohol. 1992 Jul-Aug; 9(4):287-92. PMID: 1637494.
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    106. Bao K, Middaugh LD, Becker HC, Shepherd CL. Effects of Ro 15-4513 and ethanol on operant behavior of male and female C57BL/6 mice. Alcohol. 1992 May-Jun; 9(3):193-8. PMID: 1605885.
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    107. Flaherty CF, Becker HC, Checke S, Rowan GA, Grigson PS. Effect of chlorpromazine and haloperidol on negative contrast. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 May; 42(1):111-7. PMID: 1528934.
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    108. Randall CL, Anton RF, Becker HC, Hale RL, Ekblad U. Aspirin dose-dependently reduces alcohol-induced birth defects and prostaglandin E levels in mice. Teratology. 1991 Nov; 44(5):521-9. PMID: 1771594.
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    109. Randall CL, Becker HC, Anton RF. Effect of ibuprofen on alcohol-induced teratogenesis in mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1991 Aug; 15(4):673-7. PMID: 1928642.
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    110. Becker HC, Hale RL. RO15-4513 antagonizes the anxiolytic effects of ethanol in a nonshock conflict task at doses devoid of anxiogenic activity. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Jul; 39(3):803-7. PMID: 1686108.
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    111. Middaugh LD, Bao K, Becker HC, Daniel SS. Effects of Ro 15-4513 on ethanol discrimination in C57BL/6 mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1991 Apr; 38(4):763-7. PMID: 1651516.
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    112. Schenker S, Becker HC, Randall CL, Phillips DK, Baskin GS, Henderson GI. Fetal alcohol syndrome: current status of pathogenesis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1990 Oct; 14(5):635-47. PMID: 2264590.
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    113. Becker HC, Anton RF. Valproate potentiates and picrotoxin antagonizes the anxiolytic action of ethanol in a nonshock conflict task. Neuropharmacology. 1990 Sep; 29(9):837-43. PMID: 1981382.
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    114. Hale RL, Johnston AL, Becker HC. Indomethacin does not antagonize the anxiolytic action of ethanol in the elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1990; 101(2):203-7. PMID: 1971956.
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    115. Anton RF, Becker HC, Randall CL. Ethanol increases PGE and thromboxane production in mouse pregnant uterine tissue. Life Sci. 1990; 46(16):1145-53. PMID: 2342401.
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    116. Becker HC, Randall CL. Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in C57BL mice on locomotor activity and passive avoidance behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 97(1):40-4. PMID: 2496424.
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    117. Becker HC, Hale RL. Ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in C57BL/6 mice following RO15-4513 administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1989; 99(3):333-6. PMID: 2512588.
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    118. Becker HC, Anton RF. The benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonist RO15-4513 exacerbates, but does not precipitate, ethanol withdrawal in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Jan; 32(1):163-7. PMID: 2543989.
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    119. Randall CL, Anton RF, Becker HC, White NM. Role of prostaglandins in alcohol teratogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989; 562:178-82. PMID: 2742275.
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    120. Anton RF, Randall CL, Becker HC. PGE measurement in mouse embryos and uterine/embryo tissue. Prostaglandins. 1988 Dec; 36(6):835-46. PMID: 3244834.
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    121. Randall CL, Anton RF, Becker HC. Role of alcohol-induced hypothermia in mediating the teratogenic effects of alcohol in C57BL/6J mice. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1988 Jun; 12(3):412-6. PMID: 3044172.
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    122. Becker HC, Randall CL, Riley EP. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on response to abrupt reward reduction. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Mar-Apr; 10(2):121-5. PMID: 3398819.
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    123. Becker HC. Effects of the imidazobenzodiazepine RO15-4513 on the stimulant and depressant actions of ethanol on spontaneous locomotor activity. Life Sci. 1988; 43(7):643-50. PMID: 2456444.
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    124. Becker HC, Anton RF, Randall CL. Stereotypic wall climbing in mice during ethanol withdrawal: a new measure of physical dependence. Alcohol. 1987 Nov-Dec; 4(6):443-7. PMID: 3435633.
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    125. Randall CL, Anton RF, Becker HC. Effect of indomethacin on alcohol-induced morphological anomalies in mice. Life Sci. 1987 Jul 20; 41(3):361-9. PMID: 3600183.
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    126. Becker HC, Randall CL. Two generations of maternal alcohol consumption in mice: effect on pregnancy outcome. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1987 Jun; 11(3):240-2. PMID: 3307486.
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    127. Randall CL, Anton RF, Becker HC. Alcohol, pregnancy, and prostaglandins. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1987 Feb; 11(1):32-6. PMID: 3551661.
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    128. Becker HC. Comparison of the effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam and three serotonin antagonists on a consummatory conflict paradigm. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986 Apr; 24(4):1057-64. PMID: 3012590.
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    129. Becker HC, Randall CL, Anton RF. Pre-pregnancy alcohol experience attenuates typical decrease in gestational alcohol consumption in mice. Alcohol. 1986 Jan-Feb; 3(1):19-22. PMID: 3964433.
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    130. Becker HC, Anton RF, De Trana C, Randall CL. Sensitivity to ethanol in female mice: effects of ovariectomy and strain. Life Sci. 1985 Oct 07; 37(14):1293-300. PMID: 4046734.
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    131. Randall CL, Becker HC, Middaugh LD. Effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on activity and shuttle avoidance behavior in adult C57 mice. Alcohol Drug Res. 1985-1986; 6(5):351-60. PMID: 3834928.
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    132. Becker HC, Jarvis MF, Wagner GC, Flaherty CF. Medial and lateral amygdalectomy differentially influences consummatory negative contrast. Physiol Behav. 1984 Nov; 33(5):707-12. PMID: 6522490.
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    133. Flaherty CF, Becker HC. Influence of conditioned stimulus context on hyperglycemic conditioned responses. Physiol Behav. 1984 Oct; 33(4):587-93. PMID: 6395150.
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    134. Flaherty CF, Becker HC, Rowan GA, Voelker S. Effects of chlordiazepoxide on novelty-induced hyperglycemia and on conditioned hyperglycemia. Physiol Behav. 1984 Oct; 33(4):595-9. PMID: 6395151.
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    135. Flaherty CF, McCurdy ML, Becker HC, D'Alessio J. Incentive relativity effects reduced by exogenous insulin. Physiol Behav. 1983 Apr; 30(4):639-42. PMID: 6348814.
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    136. Becker HC, Flaherty CF. Chlordiazepoxide and ethanol additively reduce gustatory negative contrast. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1983; 80(1):35-7. PMID: 6408667.
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    137. Becker HC, Flaherty CF. Influence of ethanol on contrast in consummatory behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1982; 77(3):253-8. PMID: 6812148.
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