Keywords
Last Name
Institution

Chrystal Mary Paulos

TitleEndowed Chair, Cecilia and Vincent Peng Endowed Chair in Melanoma and Cutaneous
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 955
HO 612C
86 Jonathan Lucas St.
Phone843-792-3210
Fax843-792-9588
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Our laboratory focuses on developing novel T-cell immunotherapies for patients with advanced cancer. Our strategy is based on the use of mouse models to develop human clinical trials that effectively harness the patient’s own immune system to kill cancer.

    We study new ways to improve adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy, which involves removal of T cells from the patient, their expansion/manipulation ex-vivo, followed by their return to patient preconditioned with lymphodepletion via chemotherapy agents and/or total body irradiation.

    Lymphodepletion significantly enhances the efficacy of ACT therapies. However, host conditioning with lymphodepletion is not the only factor that positively impacts clinical outcome. We and other investigators have found that the functional properties of T cells are critical for successful tumor immunotherapy.

    We have very recently found that CD4 and CD8 T cells that produce IL-17 (Th17 and Tc17 cells, respectively) mediate robust tumor regression. Additional investigation revealed that the expansion of Th17/Tc17 cells with the costimulatory molecule ICOS but not CD28 further improved their function and their ability to eradiate large tumors (see Fig1). Although ICOS-expanded Th17/Tc17 cells mediate potent tumor regression, the cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying how ICOS signaling drives the differentiation and expansion of cells that produce high levels of IL-17, IL-21 and IFN-gamma compared to those stimulated with CD28 remains incompletely elucidated. Thus, we are now investigating key transcription factors regulated by ICOS versus CD28 that distinctly impact their functional fate. We are also investigating the mechanism governing the in vivo effectiveness of ICOS-expanded tumor-specific Tc17/Th17 cells using the clinically relevant transgenic ACT mouse models of cancer created in Dr. Nicholas Restifo’s laboratory.
    In summary, research in the Paulos laboratory will focus on broadening the utility and efficacy of the ACT approach. We are particularly interested in improving host preconditioning regimens as well as augmenting various T-cell subsets by ex-vivo and in-vivo manipulation with novel cytokine/chemical cocktails and with ICOS agonists (as well as with other costimulatory molecules). We believe that our investigations will provide vital information on how to build on the next generation of T-cell based immunotherapies for cancer as well as for autoimmunity and infectious diseases.


    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Horton JD, Knochelmann HM, Day TA, Paulos CM, Neskey DM. Immune Evasion by Head and Neck Cancer: Foundations for Combination Therapy. Trends Cancer. 2019 Apr; 5(4):208-232. PMID: 30961829.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Dwyer CJ, Knochelmann HM, Smith AS, Wyatt MM, Rangel Rivera GO, Arhontoulis DC, Bartee E, Li Z, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. Fueling Cancer Immunotherapy With Common Gamma Chain Cytokines. Front Immunol. 2019; 10:263. PMID: 30842774.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Eby JM, Smith AR, Riley TP, Cosgrove C, Ankney CM, Henning SW, Paulos CM, Garrett-Mayer E, Luiten RM, Nishimura MI, Baker BM, Le Poole IC. Molecular properties of gp100-reactive T-cell receptors drive the cytokine profile and antitumor efficacy of transgenic host T cells. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2019 01; 32(1):68-78. PMID: 30009548.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Knochelmann HM, Smith AS, Dwyer CJ, Wyatt MM, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM. CAR T Cells in Solid Tumors: Blueprints for Building Effective Therapies. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1740. PMID: 30140266.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Ascierto PA, Brugarolas J, Buonaguro L, Butterfield LH, Carbone D, Daniele B, Ferris R, Fox BA, Galon J, Gridelli C, Kaufman HL, Klebanoff CA, Melero I, Nathan P, Paulos CM, Ruella M, Sullivan R, Zarour H, Puzanov I. Perspectives in immunotherapy: meeting report from the Immunotherapy Bridge (29-30 November, 2017, Naples, Italy). J Immunother Cancer. 2018 Jul 11; 6(1):69. PMID: 29996914.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Hu X, Majchrzak K, Liu X, Wyatt MM, Spooner CJ, Moisan J, Zou W, Carter LL, Paulos CM. In Vitro Priming of Adoptively Transferred T Cells with a ROR? Agonist Confers Durable Memory and Stemness In Vivo. Cancer Res. 2018 Jul 15; 78(14):3888-3898. PMID: 29769201.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Johnson CB, May BR, Riesenberg BP, Suriano S, Mehrotra S, Garrett-Mayer E, Salem ML, Jeng EK, Wong HC, Paulos CM, Wrangle JM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. Enhanced Lymphodepletion Is Insufficient to Replace Exogenous IL2 or IL15 Therapy in Augmenting the Efficacy of Adoptively Transferred Effector CD8+ T Cells. Cancer Res. 2018 06 01; 78(11):3067-3074. PMID: 29636345.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Knochelmann HM, Dwyer CJ, Bailey SR, Amaya SM, Elston DM, Mazza-McCrann JM, Paulos CM. When worlds collide: Th17 and Treg cells in cancer and autoimmunity. Cell Mol Immunol. 2018 May; 15(5):458-469. PMID: 29563615.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Scheffel MJ, Scurti G, Wyatt MM, Garrett-Mayer E, Paulos CM, Nishimura MI, Voelkel-Johnson C. N-acetyl cysteine protects anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells from exhaustion induced by rapid expansion via the downmodulation of Foxo1 in an Akt-dependent manner. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2018 Apr; 67(4):691-702. PMID: 29396710.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Wrangle JM, Patterson A, Johnson CB, Neitzke DJ, Mehrotra S, Denlinger CE, Paulos CM, Li Z, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. IL-2 and Beyond in Cancer Immunotherapy. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2018 Feb; 38(2):45-68. PMID: 29443657.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Riley JM, Cross AW, Paulos CM, Rubinstein MP, Wrangle J, Camp ER. The clinical implications of immunogenomics in colorectal cancer: A path for precision medicine. Cancer. 2018 Apr 15; 124(8):1650-1659. PMID: 29315503.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Bailey SR, Nelson MH, Majchrzak K, Bowers JS, Wyatt MM, Smith AS, Neal LR, Shirai K, Carpenito C, June CH, Zilliox MJ, Paulos CM. Human CD26high T cells elicit tumor immunity against multiple malignancies via enhanced migration and persistence. Nat Commun. 2017 12 06; 8(1):1961. PMID: 29213079.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Lu P, Bowers JS, Ogretmen B, Garrett-Mayer E, Paulos CM, Voelkel-Johnson C. Adoptive Transfer of Ceramide Synthase 6 Deficient Splenocytes Reduces the Development of Colitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 14; 7(1):15552. PMID: 29138469.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Chatterjee S, Daenthanasanmak A, Chakraborty P, Wyatt MW, Dhar P, Selvam SP, Fu J, Zhang J, Nguyen H, Kang I, Toth K, Al-Homrani M, Husain M, Beeson G, Ball L, Helke K, Husain S, Garrett-Mayer E, Hardiman G, Mehrotra M, Nishimura MI, Beeson CC, Bupp MG, Wu J, Ogretmen B, Paulos CM, Rathmell J, Yu XZ, Mehrotra S. CD38-NAD+Axis Regulates Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor T Cell Response. Cell Metab. 2018 01 09; 27(1):85-100.e8. PMID: 29129787.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Bowers JS, Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Aksoy BA, Wyatt MM, Smith AS, Bailey SR, Neal LR, Hammerbacher JE, Paulos CM. PI3Kd Inhibition Enhances the Antitumor Fitness of Adoptively Transferred CD8+ T Cells. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1221. PMID: 29033940.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Wrangle J, Paulos CM, Smith TW, Nishimura MI, Rubinstein MP. Inducible Enhancement of T Cell Function and Anti-tumor Activity after Adoptive Transfer. Mol Ther. 2017 09 06; 25(9):1995-1996. PMID: 28830671.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Neal LR, Bailey SR, Wyatt MM, Bowers JS, Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Haupt C, Paulos CM, Varela JC. The Basics of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells in T Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapies. J Immunol Res Ther. 2017; 2(1):68-79. PMID: 28825053.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Thaxton JE, Wallace C, Riesenberg B, Zhang Y, Paulos CM, Beeson CC, Liu B, Li Z. Modulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Controls CD4+ T-cell Activation and Antitumor Function. Cancer Immunol Res. 2017 08; 5(8):666-675. PMID: 28642246.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Rachidi S, Metelli A, Riesenberg B, Wu BX, Nelson MH, Wallace C, Paulos CM, Rubinstein MP, Garrett-Mayer E, Hennig M, Bearden DW, Yang Y, Liu B, Li Z. Platelets subvert T cell immunity against cancer via GARP-TGFß axis. Sci Immunol. 2017 May 05; 2(11). PMID: 28763790.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Bowers JS, Bailey SR, Wyatt MM, Wrangle JM, Rubinstein MP, Varela JC, Li Z, Himes RA, Chan SS, Paulos CM. ß-catenin and PI3Kd inhibition expands precursor Th17 cells with heightened stemness and antitumor activity. JCI Insight. 2017 Apr 20; 2(8). PMID: 28422756.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Malik BT, Byrne KT, Vella JL, Zhang P, Shabaneh TB, Steinberg SM, Molodtsov AK, Bowers JS, Angeles CV, Paulos CM, Huang YH, Turk MJ. Resident memory T cells in the skin mediate durable immunity to melanoma. Sci Immunol. 2017 Apr 14; 2(10). PMID: 28738020.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Mehrotra S, Britten CD, Chin S, Garrett-Mayer E, Cloud CA, Li M, Scurti G, Salem ML, Nelson MH, Thomas MB, Paulos CM, Salazar AM, Nishimura MI, Rubinstein MP, Li Z, Cole DJ. Vaccination with poly(IC:LC) and peptide-pulsed autologous dendritic cells in patients with pancreatic cancer. J Hematol Oncol. 2017 04 07; 10(1):82. PMID: 28388966.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Zhu P, Bailey SR, Lei B, Paulos CM, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. Targeted Complement Inhibition Protects Vascularized Composite Allografts From Acute Graft Injury and Prolongs Graft Survival When Combined With Subtherapeutic Cyclosporine A Therapy. Transplantation. 2017 04; 101(4):e75-e85. PMID: 28045880.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Neitzke DJ, Bowers JS, Andrijauskaite K, O'Connell NS, Garrett-Mayer E, Wrangle J, Li Z, Paulos CM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. Murine Th17 cells utilize IL-2 receptor gamma chain cytokines but are resistant to cytokine withdrawal-induced apoptosis. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2017 Jun; 66(6):737-751. PMID: 28280853.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Bowers JS, Nelson MH, Majchrzak K, Bailey SR, Rohrer B, Kaiser AD, Atkinson C, Gattinoni L, Paulos CM. Th17 cells are refractory to senescence and retain robust antitumor activity after long-term ex vivo expansion. JCI Insight. 2017 03 09; 2(5):e90772. PMID: 28289713.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Hu X, Liu X, Moisan J, Wang Y, Lesch CA, Spooner C, Morgan RW, Zawidzka EM, Mertz D, Bousley D, Majchrzak K, Kryczek I, Taylor C, Van Huis C, Skalitzky D, Hurd A, Aicher TD, Toogood PL, Glick GD, Paulos CM, Zou W, Carter LL. Synthetic ROR? agonists regulate multiple pathways to enhance antitumor immunity. Oncoimmunology. 2016; 5(12):e1254854. PMID: 28123897.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Varghese B, Paulos C, Low PS. Optimization of Folate-Targeted Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Experimental Arthritis. Inflammation. 2016 Aug; 39(4):1345-53. PMID: 27206918.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Banerjee A, Thyagarajan K, Chatterjee S, Chakraborty P, Kesarwani P, Soloshchenko M, Al-Hommrani M, Andrijauskaite K, Moxley K, Janakiraman H, Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Armenson K, Palanisamy V, Rubinstein MP, Mayer EG, Cole DJ, Paulos CM. Lack of p53 Augments Antitumor Functions in Cytolytic T Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 09 15; 76(18):5229-5240. PMID: 27466285.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Nelson MH, Bowers JS, Bailey SR, Diven MA, Fugle CW, Kaiser AD, Wrzesinski C, Liu B, Restifo NP, Paulos CM. Toll-like receptor agonist therapy can profoundly augment the antitumor activity of adoptively transferred CD8(+) T cells without host preconditioning. J Immunother Cancer. 2016; 4:6. PMID: 26885368.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Majchrzak K, Nelson MH, Bailey SR, Bowers JS, Yu XZ, Rubinstein MP, Himes RA, Paulos CM. Exploiting IL-17-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to improve cancer immunotherapy in the clinic. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2016 Mar; 65(3):247-59. PMID: 26825102.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Johnson CB, Wrangle J, Mehrotra S, Li Z, Paulos CM, Cole DJ, Surh CD, Rubinstein MP. Harnessing the IL-7/IL-7Ra axis to improve tumor immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2016 May; 5(5):e1122865. PMID: 27467935.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Su EW, Moore CJ, Suriano S, Johnson CB, Songalia N, Patterson A, Neitzke DJ, Andrijauskaite K, Garrett-Mayer E, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM, Doedens AL, Goldrath AW, Li Z, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. IL-2Ra mediates temporal regulation of IL-2 signaling and enhances immunotherapy. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Oct 28; 7(311):311ra170. PMID: 26511507.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Nelson MH, Diven MA, Huff LW, Paulos CM. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy. J Immunol Res. 2015; 2015:368736. PMID: 26101781.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Bowers JS, Nelson MH, Kundimi S, Bailey SR, Huff LW, Schwartz KM, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. Dendritic Cells in Irradiated Mice Trigger the Functional Plasticity and Antitumor Activity of Adoptively Transferred Tc17 Cells via IL12 Signaling. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 Jun 01; 21(11):2546-57. PMID: 25904754.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Rubinstein MP, Su EW, Suriano S, Cloud CA, Andrijauskaite K, Kesarwani P, Schwartz KM, Williams KM, Johnson CB, Li M, Scurti GM, Salem ML, Paulos CM, Garrett-Mayer E, Mehrotra S, Cole DJ. Interleukin-12 enhances the function and anti-tumor activity in murine and human CD8(+) T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015 May; 64(5):539-49. PMID: 25676709.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Frigault MJ, Lee J, Basil MC, Carpenito C, Motohashi S, Scholler J, Kawalekar OU, Guedan S, McGettigan SE, Posey AD, Ang S, Cooper LJ, Platt JM, Johnson FB, Paulos CM, Zhao Y, Kalos M, Milone MC, June CH. Identification of chimeric antigen receptors that mediate constitutive or inducible proliferation of T cells. Cancer Immunol Res. 2015 Apr; 3(4):356-67. PMID: 25600436.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Nelson MH, Kundimi S, Bowers JS, Rogers CE, Huff LW, Schwartz KM, Thyagarajan K, Little EC, Mehrotra S, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP, Paulos CM. The inducible costimulator augments Tc17 cell responses to self and tumor tissue. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 15; 194(4):1737-47. PMID: 25576595.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Nelson MH, Paulos CM. Novel immunotherapies for hematologic malignancies. Immunol Rev. 2015 Jan; 263(1):90-105. PMID: 25510273.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Varghese B, Vlashi E, Xia W, Ayala Lopez W, Paulos CM, Reddy J, Xu LC, Low PS. Folate receptor-ß in activated macrophages: ligand binding and receptor recycling kinetics. Mol Pharm. 2014 Oct 06; 11(10):3609-16. PMID: 25166491.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Chatterjee S, Thyagarajan K, Kesarwani P, Song JH, Soloshchenko M, Fu J, Bailey SR, Vasu C, Kraft AS, Paulos CM, Yu XZ, Mehrotra S. Reducing CD73 expression by IL1ß-Programmed Th17 cells improves immunotherapeutic control of tumors. Cancer Res. 2014 Nov 01; 74(21):6048-59. PMID: 25205101.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Bailey SR, Nelson MH, Himes RA, Li Z, Mehrotra S, Paulos CM. Th17 cells in cancer: the ultimate identity crisis. Front Immunol. 2014; 5:276. PMID: 24987392.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Rubinstein MP, Cloud CA, Garrett TE, Moore CJ, Schwartz KM, Johnson CB, Craig DH, Salem ML, Paulos CM, Cole DJ. Ex vivo interleukin-12-priming during CD8(+) T cell activation dramatically improves adoptive T cell transfer antitumor efficacy in a lymphodepleted host. J Am Coll Surg. 2012 Apr; 214(4):700-7; discussion 707-8. PMID: 22360982.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Gattinoni L, Lugli E, Ji Y, Pos Z, Paulos CM, Quigley MF, Almeida JR, Gostick E, Yu Z, Carpenito C, Wang E, Douek DC, Price DA, June CH, Marincola FM, Roederer M, Restifo NP. A human memory T cell subset with stem cell-like properties. Nat Med. 2011 Sep 18; 17(10):1290-7. PMID: 21926977.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Zhang Q, Wang H, Kantekure K, Paterson JC, Liu X, Schaffer A, Paulos C, Milone MC, Odum N, Turner S, Marafioti T, Wasik MA. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS. Blood. 2011 Sep 15; 118(11):3062-71. PMID: 21765024.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Paulos CM, Carpenito C, Plesa G, Suhoski MM, Varela-Rohena A, Golovina TN, Carroll RG, Riley JL, June CH. The inducible costimulator (ICOS) is critical for the development of human T(H)17 cells. Sci Transl Med. 2010 Oct 27; 2(55):55ra78. PMID: 20980695.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Zhao Y, Moon E, Carpenito C, Paulos CM, Liu X, Brennan AL, Chew A, Carroll RG, Scholler J, Levine BL, Albelda SM, June CH. Multiple injections of electroporated autologous T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor mediate regression of human disseminated tumor. Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 15; 70(22):9053-61. PMID: 20926399.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Kaiser A, Muranski P, Palmer DC, Gattinoni L, Yu Z, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Increased intensity lymphodepletion enhances tumor treatment efficacy of adoptively transferred tumor-specific T cells. J Immunother. 2010 Jan; 33(1):1-7. PMID: 19952961.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Paulos CM, June CH. Putting the brakes on BTLA in T cell-mediated cancer immunotherapy. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan; 120(1):76-80. PMID: 20038807.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Gattinoni L, Zhong XS, Palmer DC, Ji Y, Hinrichs CS, Yu Z, Wrzesinski C, Boni A, Cassard L, Garvin LM, Paulos CM, Muranski P, Restifo NP. Wnt signaling arrests effector T cell differentiation and generates CD8+ memory stem cells. Nat Med. 2009 Jul; 15(7):808-13. PMID: 19525962.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Hinrichs CS, Kaiser A, Paulos CM, Cassard L, Sanchez-Perez L, Heemskerk B, Wrzesinski C, Borman ZA, Muranski P, Restifo NP. Type 17 CD8+ T cells display enhanced antitumor immunity. Blood. 2009 Jul 16; 114(3):596-9. PMID: 19471017.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Boni A, Muranski P, Cassard L, Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Gattinoni L, Hinrichs CS, Chan CC, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Adoptive transfer of allogeneic tumor-specific T cells mediates effective regression of large tumors across major histocompatibility barriers. Blood. 2008 Dec 01; 112(12):4746-54. PMID: 18799724.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Palmer DC, Chan CC, Gattinoni L, Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Hinrichs CS, Powell DJ, Klebanoff CA, Finkelstein SE, Fariss RN, Yu Z, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Effective tumor treatment targeting a melanoma/melanocyte-associated antigen triggers severe ocular autoimmunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 10; 105(23):8061-6. PMID: 18523011.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Muranski P, Boni A, Antony PA, Cassard L, Irvine KR, Kaiser A, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Touloukian CE, Ptak K, Gattinoni L, Wrzesinski C, Hinrichs CS, Kerstann KW, Feigenbaum L, Chan CC, Restifo NP. Tumor-specific Th17-polarized cells eradicate large established melanoma. Blood. 2008 Jul 15; 112(2):362-73. PMID: 18354038.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Hinrichs CS, Spolski R, Paulos CM, Gattinoni L, Kerstann KW, Palmer DC, Klebanoff CA, Rosenberg SA, Leonard WJ, Restifo NP. IL-2 and IL-21 confer opposing differentiation programs to CD8+ T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. Blood. 2008 Jun 01; 111(11):5326-33. PMID: 18276844.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Abad JD, Wrzensinski C, Overwijk W, De Witte MA, Jorritsma A, Hsu C, Gattinoni L, Cohen CJ, Paulos CM, Palmer DC, Haanen JB, Schumacher TN, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP, Morgan RA. T-cell receptor gene therapy of established tumors in a murine melanoma model. J Immunother. 2008 Jan; 31(1):1-6. PMID: 18157006.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Paulos CM, Suhoski MM, Plesa G, Jiang T, Basu S, Golovina TN, Jiang S, Aqui NA, Powell DJ, Levine BL, Carroll RG, Riley JL, June CH. Adoptive immunotherapy: good habits instilled at youth have long-term benefits. Immunol Res. 2008; 42(1-3):182-96. PMID: 18949448.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Paulos CM, Kaiser A, Wrzesinski C, Hinrichs CS, Cassard L, Boni A, Muranski P, Sanchez-Perez L, Palmer DC, Yu Z, Antony PA, Gattinoni L, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Toll-like receptors in tumor immunotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Sep 15; 13(18 Pt 1):5280-9. PMID: 17875756.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Paulos CM, Wrzesinski C, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Chieppa M, Cassard L, Palmer DC, Boni A, Muranski P, Yu Z, Gattinoni L, Antony PA, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Microbial translocation augments the function of adoptively transferred self/tumor-specific CD8+ T cells via TLR4 signaling. J Clin Invest. 2007 Aug; 117(8):2197-204. PMID: 17657310.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Wrzesinski C, Paulos CM, Gattinoni L, Palmer DC, Kaiser A, Yu Z, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP. Hematopoietic stem cells promote the expansion and function of adoptively transferred antitumor CD8 T cells. J Clin Invest. 2007 Feb; 117(2):492-501. PMID: 17273561.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Antony PA, Paulos CM, Ahmadzadeh M, Akpinarli A, Palmer DC, Sato N, Kaiser A, Hinrichs CS, Heinrichs C, Klebanoff CA, Tagaya Y, Restifo NP. Interleukin-2-dependent mechanisms of tolerance and immunity in vivo. J Immunol. 2006 May 01; 176(9):5255-66. PMID: 16621991.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Paulos CM, Varghese B, Widmer WR, Breur GJ, Vlashi E, Low PS. Folate-targeted immunotherapy effectively treats established adjuvant and collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006; 8(3):R77. PMID: 16646988.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Paulos CM, Reddy JA, Leamon CP, Turk MJ, Low PS. Ligand binding and kinetics of folate receptor recycling in vivo: impact on receptor-mediated drug delivery. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 66(6):1406-14. PMID: 15371560.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Paulos CM, Turk MJ, Breur GJ, Low PS. Folate receptor-mediated targeting of therapeutic and imaging agents to activated macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2004 Apr 29; 56(8):1205-17. PMID: 15094216.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Turk MJ, Breur GJ, Widmer WR, Paulos CM, Xu LC, Grote LA, Low PS. Folate-targeted imaging of activated macrophages in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Jul; 46(7):1947-55. PMID: 12124880.
      View in: PubMed
    Paulos's Networks
    Click the "See All" links for more information and interactive visualizations!
    Concepts Expand Description
    _
    Co-Authors Expand Description
    _
    Similar People Expand Description
    _
    Same Department Expand Description
    Physical Neighbors Expand Description
    _