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Last Name
Institution

Carl Atkinson

Title
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
AddressP.O. Box MSC 504
CRI 208
173 Ashley Ave.
Phone843-792-1716
Fax843-792-2464
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Heart transplantation is an accept treatment modality for patients with end-stage heart disease. These patients have reached the end of conventional pharmacological therapy or surgical interventions and the only therapeutic option left is heart transplantation. Current first year survival rates post transplantation varies between 80-95%, and patients surviving beyond the first can expect an average half-life of 11 years. While these results are acceptable patients eventually succumb to chronic rejection which manifests as an obliterative vascular lesion which restricts the hearts blood supply and eventually leads to heart failure. The precise mechanisms that contribute to the development of chronic rejection are unknown, but recent data implicates the early ischemic damage these hearts receive due to the transplant process and brain death.

    Results from kidney transplantation have shown that the quality of the donor organ is important for post transplant survival. Organs donated from living donors perform better than those harvested from cadaveric donors. It is believed that the processes stimulated during brain death in these cadaveric donors, activates the donor heart rendering it more susceptible to ischemic damage, upon implantation, and ultimately acute and chronic rejection. The mechanisms responsible for these inflammatory changes to the donor organ are poorly characterized. Our research focuses on the elucidation of these mechanisms and the application of novel therapies that can be applied to the donor prior to transplantation to limit donor organ damage. During brain death all of the organs in the body are exposed to ischemia and chaotic changes in blood supply and pressure. Our studies have implicated the complement system in the activation of the donor heart. The complement system is composed of a series of serum proteins that work in a concerted fashion to induce cell death, promote inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have been working with complement inhibitory proteins with the aim to reduce complement mediated brain death induced inflammation and ultimately to reduce the incidence and severity of both acute and chronic rejection.

    Collapse keywords
    Immunology, Innate immunity, chronic lung disease

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Patel KJ, Cheng Q, Stephenson S, Allen DP, Li C, Kilkenny J, Finnegan R, Montalvo-Calero V, Esckilsen S, Vasu C, Goddard M, Nadig SN, Atkinson C. Emphysema-associated Autoreactive Antibodies Exacerbate Post-Lung Transplant Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2019 Jun; 60(6):678-686. PMID: 30571141.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Nguyen H, Kuril S, Bastian D, Kim J, Zhang M, Vaena SG, Dany M, Dai M, Heinrichs JL, Daenthanasanmak A, Iamsawat S, Schutt S, Fu J, Wu Y, Fairlie DP, Atkinson C, Ogretmen B, Tomlinson S, Yu XZ. Complement C3a and C5a receptors promote GVHD by suppressing mitophagy in recipient dendritic cells. JCI Insight. 2018 12 20; 3(24). PMID: 30568037.
      View in: PubMed
    3. House R, Majumder M, Janakiraman H, Ogretmen B, Kato M, Erkul E, Hill E, Atkinson C, Barth J, Day TA, Palanisamy V. Smoking-induced control of miR-133a-3p alters the expression of EGFR and HuR in HPV-infected oropharyngeal cancer. PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0205077. PMID: 30289952.
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    4. Zhu P, Atkinson C, Dixit S, Cheng Q, Tran D, Patel K, Jiang YL, Esckilsen S, Miller K, Bazzle G, Allen P, Moore A, Broome AM, Nadig SN. Organ preservation with targeted rapamycin nanoparticles: a pre-treatment strategy preventing chronic rejection in vivo. RSC Adv. 2018 Jul 23; 8(46):25909-25919. PMID: 30220998.
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    5. Mulligan JK, Patel K, Williamson T, Reaves N, Carroll W, Stephenson SE, Gao P, Drake RR, Neely BA, Tomlinson S, Schlosser RJ, Atkinson C. C3a receptor antagonism as a novel therapeutic target for chronic rhinosinusitis. Mucosal Immunol. 2018 09; 11(5):1375-1385. PMID: 29907871.
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    6. Tran DT, Esckilsen S, Mulligan J, Mehrotra S, Atkinson C, Nadig SN. Impact of Mitochondrial Permeability on Endothelial Cell Immunogenicity in Transplantation. Transplantation. 2018 06; 102(6):935-944. PMID: 29538260.
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    7. Kimbrough D, Wang SH, Wright LH, Mani SK, Kasiganesan H, LaRue AC, Cheng Q, Nadig SN, Atkinson C, Menick DR. HDAC inhibition helps post-MI healing by modulating macrophage polarization. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018 06; 119:51-63. PMID: 29680681.
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    8. Cheng Q, Patel K, Lei B, Rucker L, Allen DP, Zhu P, Vasu C, Martins PN, Goddard M, Nadig SN, Atkinson C. Donor pretreatment with nebulized complement C3a receptor antagonist mitigates brain-death induced immunological injury post-lung transplant. Am J Transplant. 2018 Oct; 18(10):2417-2428. PMID: 29504277.
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    9. Arbra CA, Nadig SN, Dennis SG, Pattanaik S, Bainbridge HA, Rhett JM, Fann SA, Atkinson C, Yost MJ. Microdissection of Primary Renal Tissue Segments and Incorporation with Novel Scaffold-free Construct Technology. J Vis Exp. 2018 03 27; (133). PMID: 29658916.
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    10. Marshall K, Jin J, Atkinson C, Alawieh A, Qiao F, Lei B, Chavin KD, He S, Tomlinson S. Natural immunoglobulin M initiates an inflammatory response important for both hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury and regeneration in mice. Hepatology. 2018 Feb; 67(2):721-735. PMID: 28880403.
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    11. Palmer C, Mulligan JK, Smith SE, Atkinson C. The role of regulatory T cells in the regulation of upper airway inflammation. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2017 Nov 01; 31(6):345-351. PMID: 29122078.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Mulligan JK, Pasquini WN, Carroll WW, Williamson T, Reaves N, Patel KJ, Mappus E, Schlosser RJ, Atkinson C. Dietary vitamin D3 deficiency exacerbates sinonasal inflammation and alters local 25(OH)D3 metabolism. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186374. PMID: 29045457.
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    13. Beiko T, Janech MG, Alekseyenko AV, Atkinson C, Coxson HO, Barth JL, Stephenson SE, Wilson CL, Schnapp LM, Barker A, Brantly M, Sandhaus RA, Silverman EK, Stoller JK, Trapnell B, Charlie S. Serum Proteins Associated with Emphysema Progression in Severe Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2017 Jul 15; 4(3):204-216. PMID: 28848932.
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    14. Narang A, Qiao F, Atkinson C, Zhu H, Yang X, Kulik L, Holers VM, Tomlinson S. Natural IgM antibodies that bind neoepitopes exposed as a result of spinal cord injury , drive secondary injury by activating complement. J Neuroinflammation. 2017 06 19; 14(1):120. PMID: 28629465.
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    15. Mulligan JK, O'Connell BP, Pasquini W, Mulligan RM, Smith S, Soler ZM, Atkinson C, Schlosser RJ. Impact of tobacco smoke on upper airway dendritic cell accumulation and regulation by sinonasal epithelial cells. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017 08; 7(8):777-785. PMID: 28574651.
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    16. Patel K, Atkinson C, Tran D, Nadig SN. Nanotechnological Approaches to Immunosuppression and Tolerance Induction. Curr Transplant Rep. 2017 Jun; 4(2):159-168. PMID: 29057203.
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    17. Zhu P, Bailey SR, Lei B, Paulos CM, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. Targeted Complement Inhibition Protects Vascularized Composite Allografts From Acute Graft Injury and Prolongs Graft Survival When Combined With Subtherapeutic Cyclosporine A Therapy. Transplantation. 2017 04; 101(4):e75-e85. PMID: 28045880.
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    18. Bowers JS, Nelson MH, Majchrzak K, Bailey SR, Rohrer B, Kaiser AD, Atkinson C, Gattinoni L, Paulos CM. Th17 cells are refractory to senescence and retain robust antitumor activity after long-term ex vivo expansion. JCI Insight. 2017 03 09; 2(5):e90772. PMID: 28289713.
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    19. Velez JCQ, Arif E, Rodgers J, Hicks MP, Arthur JM, Nihalani D, Bruner ET, Budisavljevic MN, Atkinson C, Fitzgibbon WR, Janech MG. Deficiency of the Angiotensinase Aminopeptidase A Increases Susceptibility to Glomerular Injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017 Jul; 28(7):2119-2132. PMID: 28202497.
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    20. Long X, Cheng Q, Liang H, Zhao J, Wang J, Wang W, Tomlinson S, Chen L, Atkinson C, Zhang B, Chen X, Zhu P. Memory CD4+ T cells are suppressed by CD8+ regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo. Am J Transl Res. 2017; 9(1):63-78. PMID: 28123634.
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    21. Holers VM, Tomlinson S, Kulik L, Atkinson C, Rohrer B, Banda N, Thurman JM. New therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities for injured tissue-specific targeting of complement inhibitors and imaging modalities. Semin Immunol. 2016 06; 28(3):260-7. PMID: 27282113.
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    22. Woodell A, Jones BW, Williamson T, Schnabolk G, Tomlinson S, Atkinson C, Rohrer B. A Targeted Inhibitor of the Alternative Complement Pathway Accelerates Recovery From Smoke-Induced Ocular Injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016 Apr; 57(4):1728-37. PMID: 27064393.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Alawieh A, Elvington A, Zhu H, Yu J, Kindy MS, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. Modulation of post-stroke degenerative and regenerative processes and subacute protection by site-targeted inhibition of the alternative pathway of complement. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 30; 12:247. PMID: 26714866.
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    24. Xiang Y, Kiseleva R, Reukov V, Mulligan J, Atkinson C, Schlosser R, Vertegel A. Relationship between Targeting Efficacy of Liposomes and the Dosage of Targeting Antibody Using Surface Plasmon Resonance. Langmuir. 2015 Nov 10; 31(44):12177-86. PMID: 26484937.
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    25. Zhu P, Esckilsen S, Atkinson C, Chen XP, Nadig SN. A simplified cuff technique for abdominal aortic transplantation in mice. J Surg Res. 2016 Feb; 200(2):707-13. PMID: 26375503.
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    26. Nadig SN, Dixit SK, Levey N, Esckilsen S, Miller K, Dennis W, Atkinson C, Broome AM. Immunosuppressive nano-therapeutic micelles downregulate endothelial cell inflammation and immunogenicity. RSC Adv. 2015; 5(54):43552-43562. PMID: 26167278.
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    27. Taylor CM, Atkinson C, Penfold C, Bhattacharya S, Campbell D, Davey Smith G, Leary S, Ness A. Folic acid in pregnancy and mortality from cancer and cardiovascular disease: further follow-up of the Aberdeen folic acid supplementation trial. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Aug; 69(8):789-94. PMID: 25855124.
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    28. Atkinson C, Qiao F, Yang X, Zhu P, Reaves N, Kulik L, Goddard M, Holers VM, Tomlinson S. Targeting pathogenic postischemic self-recognition by natural IgM to protect against posttransplantation cardiac reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2015 Mar 31; 131(13):1171-80. PMID: 25825397.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Marshall KM, He S, Zhong Z, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. Dissecting the complement pathway in hepatic injury and regeneration with a novel protective strategy. J Exp Med. 2014 Aug 25; 211(9):1793-805. PMID: 25113972.
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    30. Kunchithapautham K, Atkinson C, Rohrer B. Smoke exposure causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and lipid accumulation in retinal pigment epithelium through oxidative stress and complement activation. J Biol Chem. 2014 May 23; 289(21):14534-46. PMID: 24711457.
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    31. Mulligan JK, Nagel W, O'Connell BP, Wentzel J, Atkinson C, Schlosser RJ. Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with vitamin D3 deficiencies in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Aug; 134(2):342-9. PMID: 24698317.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Woodell A, Coughlin B, Kunchithapautham K, Casey S, Williamson T, Ferrell WD, Atkinson C, Jones BW, Rohrer B. Alternative complement pathway deficiency ameliorates chronic smoke-induced functional and morphological ocular injury. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e67894. PMID: 23825688.
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    33. Khan MA, Maasch C, Vater A, Klussmann S, Morser J, Leung LL, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S, Heeger PS, Nicolls MR. Targeting complement component 5a promotes vascular integrity and limits airway remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Apr 09; 110(15):6061-6. PMID: 23530212.
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    34. Atkinson C, Floerchinger B, Qiao F, Casey S, Williamson T, Moseley E, Stoica S, Goddard M, Ge X, Tullius SG, Tomlinson S. Donor brain death exacerbates complement-dependent ischemia/reperfusion injury in transplanted hearts. Circulation. 2013 Mar 26; 127(12):1290-9. PMID: 23443736.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Qiu S, Liu N, Jia L, Yang G, Su W, Li J, Song L, Yang C, Wang J, Zhang C, Wang Z, Qiao F, Tomlinson S, Atkinson C, Sun Y, Huang L, Song H, Wang Y, Li Z. A new treatment for neurogenic inflammation caused by EV71 with CR2-targeted complement inhibitor. Virol J. 2012 Nov 23; 9:285. PMID: 23173749.
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    36. Elvington A, Atkinson C, Zhu H, Yu J, Takahashi K, Stahl GL, Kindy MS, Tomlinson S. The alternative complement pathway propagates inflammation and injury in murine ischemic stroke. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 01; 189(9):4640-7. PMID: 23028050.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Schepp-Berglind J, Atkinson C, Elvington M, Qiao F, Mannon P, Tomlinson S. Complement-dependent injury and protection in a murine model of acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. J Immunol. 2012 Jun 15; 188(12):6309-18. PMID: 22566568.
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    38. Elvington M, Huang Y, Morgan BP, Qiao F, van Rooijen N, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S. A targeted complement-dependent strategy to improve the outcome of mAb therapy, and characterization in a murine model of metastatic cancer. Blood. 2012 Jun 21; 119(25):6043-51. PMID: 22442351.
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    39. Elvington A, Atkinson C, Kulik L, Zhu H, Yu J, Kindy MS, Holers VM, Tomlinson S. Pathogenic natural antibodies propagate cerebral injury following ischemic stroke in mice. J Immunol. 2012 Feb 01; 188(3):1460-8. PMID: 22198950.
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    40. Khan MA, Jiang X, Dhillon G, Beilke J, Holers VM, Atkinson C, Tomlinson S, Nicolls MR. CD4+ T cells and complement independently mediate graft ischemia in the rejection of mouse orthotopic tracheal transplants. Circ Res. 2011 Nov 11; 109(11):1290-301. PMID: 21998328.
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    41. Ellett JD, Atkinson C, Evans ZP, Amani Z, Balish E, Schmidt MG, Schnellmann RG, Chavin KD. Toll-like receptor 4 knockout mice are protected from endothelial overactivation in the absence of Kupffer cells after total hepatic ischemia/reperfusion. Liver Transpl. 2011 Sep; 17(9):1089-98. PMID: 21563297.
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    42. Mulligan JK, Mulligan RM, Atkinson C, Schlosser RJ. Human sinonasal epithelial cells direct dendritic function and T-cell T helper 1/T helper 2 skewing following Aspergillus exposure. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011 Jul-Aug; 1(4):268-74. PMID: 22287430.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Ayers CM, Schlosser RJ, O'Connell BP, Atkinson C, Mulligan RM, Casey SE, Bleier BS, Wang EW, Sansoni ER, Kuhlen JL, Mulligan JK. Increased presence of dendritic cells and dendritic cell chemokines in the sinus mucosa of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011 Jul-Aug; 1(4):296-302. PMID: 22287435.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Sun S, Wang H, Zhao G, An Y, Guo Y, Du L, Song H, Qiao F, Yu H, Wu X, Atkinson C, Jiang S, Tomlinson S, Zhou Y. Complement inhibition alleviates paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011 Oct; 45(4):834-42. PMID: 21421909.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Atkinson C, He S, Morris K, Qiao F, Casey S, Goddard M, Tomlinson S. Targeted complement inhibitors protect against posttransplant cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury and reveal an important role for the alternative pathway of complement activation. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):7007-13. PMID: 20962256.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Qiao F, Atkinson C, Kindy MS, Shunmugavel A, Morgan BP, Song H, Tomlinson S. The alternative and terminal pathways of complement mediate post-traumatic spinal cord inflammation and injury. Am J Pathol. 2010 Dec; 177(6):3061-70. PMID: 20952585.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Davis KS, Casey SE, Mulligan JK, Mulligan RM, Schlosser RJ, Atkinson C. Murine complement deficiency ameliorates acute cigarette smoke-induced nasal damage. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010 Jul; 143(1):152-8. PMID: 20620635.
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    48. Ellett JD, Atkinson C, Evans ZP, Amani Z, Balish E, Schmidt MG, van Rooijen N, Schnellmann RG, Chavin KD. Murine Kupffer cells are protective in total hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury with bowel congestion through IL-10. J Immunol. 2010 May 15; 184(10):5849-58. PMID: 20400698.
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    49. Moseley EL, Atkinson C, Sharples LD, Wallwork J, Goddard MJ. Deposition of C4d and C3d in cardiac transplants: a factor in the development of coronary artery vasculopathy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2010 Apr; 29(4):417-23. PMID: 20188594.
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    50. He S, Atkinson C, Qiao F, Chen X, Tomlinson S. Ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine compared with isoflurane for anesthesia during liver transplantation in rodents. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2010 Jan; 49(1):45-51. PMID: 20122316.
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    51. Schlosser RJ, Mulligan RM, Casey SE, Varela JC, Harvey RJ, Atkinson C. Alterations in gene expression of complement components in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010 Jan-Feb; 24(1):21-5. PMID: 20109314.
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    52. Atkinson C, Varela JC, Tomlinson S. Complement-dependent inflammation and injury in a murine model of brain dead donor hearts. Circ Res. 2009 Nov 20; 105(11):1094-101. PMID: 19815824.
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    53. Mulligan RM, Atkinson C, Vertegel AA, Reukov V, Schlosser RJ. Cigarette smoke extract stimulates interleukin-8 production in human airway epithelium and is attenuated by superoxide dismutase in vitro. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009 Nov-Dec; 23(6):e1-4. PMID: 19769800.
      View in: PubMed
    54. He S, Atkinson C, Evans Z, Ellett JD, Southwood M, Elvington A, Chavin KD, Tomlinson S. A role for complement in the enhanced susceptibility of steatotic livers to ischemia and reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2009 Oct 01; 183(7):4764-72. PMID: 19752222.
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    55. Ellett JD, Evans ZP, Atkinson C, Schmidt MG, Schnellmann RG, Chavin KD. Toll-like receptor 4 is a key mediator of murine steatotic liver warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. Liver Transpl. 2009 Sep; 15(9):1101-9. PMID: 19718644.
      View in: PubMed
    56. He S, Atkinson C, Qiao F, Cianflone K, Chen X, Tomlinson S. A complement-dependent balance between hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and liver regeneration in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009 Aug; 119(8):2304-16. PMID: 19620784.
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    57. Huang Y, Qiao F, Atkinson C, Holers VM, Tomlinson S. A novel targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement and its therapeutic application in ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 01; 181(11):8068-76. PMID: 19017999.
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    58. Varela JC, Atkinson C, Woolson R, Keane TE, Tomlinson S. Upregulated expression of complement inhibitory proteins on bladder cancer cells and anti-MUC1 antibody immune selection. Int J Cancer. 2008 Sep 15; 123(6):1357-63. PMID: 18561323.
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    59. Varela JC, Imai M, Atkinson C, Ohta R, Rapisardo M, Tomlinson S. Modulation of protective T cell immunity by complement inhibitor expression on tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Aug 15; 68(16):6734-42. PMID: 18701498.
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    60. Atkinson C, Qiao F, Song H, Gilkeson GS, Tomlinson S. Low-dose targeted complement inhibition protects against renal disease and other manifestations of autoimmune disease in MRL/lpr mice. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 15; 180(2):1231-8. PMID: 18178863.
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    61. Song H, Qiao F, Atkinson C, Holers VM, Tomlinson S. A complement C3 inhibitor specifically targeted to sites of complement activation effectively ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in DBA/1J mice. J Immunol. 2007 Dec 01; 179(11):7860-7. PMID: 18025232.
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    62. Atkinson C, Zhu H, Qiao F, Varela JC, Yu J, Song H, Kindy MS, Tomlinson S. Complement-dependent P-selectin expression and injury following ischemic stroke. J Immunol. 2006 Nov 15; 177(10):7266-74. PMID: 17082645.
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    63. Luckraz H, Goddard M, McNeil K, Atkinson C, Sharples LD, Wallwork J. Is obliterative bronchiolitis in lung transplantation associated with microvascular damage to small airways? Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Oct; 82(4):1212-8. PMID: 16996910.
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    64. Qiao F, Atkinson C, Song H, Pannu R, Singh I, Tomlinson S. Complement plays an important role in spinal cord injury and represents a therapeutic target for improving recovery following trauma. Am J Pathol. 2006 Sep; 169(3):1039-47. PMID: 16936276.
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    65. Atkinson C, Song H, Lu B, Qiao F, Burns TA, Holers VM, Tsokos GC, Tomlinson S. Targeted complement inhibition by C3d recognition ameliorates tissue injury without apparent increase in susceptibility to infection. J Clin Invest. 2005 Sep; 115(9):2444-53. PMID: 16127466.
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    66. Atkinson C, Southwood M, Pitman R, Phillpotts C, Wallwork J, Goddard M. Angiogenesis occurs within the intimal proliferation that characterizes transplant coronary artery vasculopathy. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005 May; 24(5):551-8. PMID: 15896752.
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    67. Stoica SC, Atkinson C, Satchithananda DK, Charman S, Goddard M, Redington AN, Large SR. Endothelial activation in the transplanted human heart from organ retrieval to 3 months after transplantation: an observational study. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005 May; 24(5):593-601. PMID: 15896758.
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    68. Yang X, Long L, Southwood M, Rudarakanchana N, Upton PD, Jeffery TK, Atkinson C, Chen H, Trembath RC, Morrell NW. Dysfunctional Smad signaling contributes to abnormal smooth muscle cell proliferation in familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circ Res. 2005 May 27; 96(10):1053-63. PMID: 15845886.
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    69. Machado RD, James V, Southwood M, Harrison RE, Atkinson C, Stewart S, Morrell NW, Trembath RC, Aldred MA. Investigation of second genetic hits at the BMPR2 locus as a modulator of disease progression in familial pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation. 2005 Feb 08; 111(5):607-13. PMID: 15699281.
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    70. Mahadeva R, Atkinson C, Li Z, Stewart S, Janciauskiene S, Kelley DG, Parmar J, Pitman R, Shapiro SD, Lomas DA. Polymers of Z alpha1-antitrypsin co-localize with neutrophils in emphysematous alveoli and are chemotactic in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2005 Feb; 166(2):377-86. PMID: 15681822.
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    71. Jones HA, Donovan T, Goddard MJ, McNeil K, Atkinson C, Clark JC, White JF, Chilvers ER. Use of 18FDG-pet to discriminate between infection and rejection in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2004 May 15; 77(9):1462-4. PMID: 15167609.
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    72. Luckraz H, Goddard M, McNeil K, Atkinson C, Charman SC, Stewart S, Wallwork J. Microvascular changes in small airways predispose to obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004 May; 23(5):527-31. PMID: 15135366.
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    73. Atkinson C, Horsley J, Rhind-Tutt S, Charman S, Phillpotts CJ, Wallwork J, Goddard MJ. Neointimal smooth muscle cells in human cardiac allograft coronary artery vasculopathy are of donor origin. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2004 Apr; 23(4):427-35. PMID: 15063402.
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    74. Stoica SC, Satchithananda DK, Atkinson C, Charman S, Goddard M, Large SR. Heat shock protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic markers in the acute phase of human cardiac transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Dec; 24(6):932-9. PMID: 14643811.
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    75. Stoica SC, Satchithananda DK, Atkinson C, White PA, Redington AN, Goddard M, Kealey T, Large SR. The energy metabolism in the right and left ventricles of human donor hearts across transplantation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2003 Apr; 23(4):503-12. PMID: 12694768.
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    76. Atkinson C, Stewart S, Upton PD, Machado R, Thomson JR, Trembath RC, Morrell NW. Primary pulmonary hypertension is associated with reduced pulmonary vascular expression of type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor. Circulation. 2002 Apr 09; 105(14):1672-8. PMID: 11940546.
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    77. Goddard MJ, Dunning J, Horsley Jo, Atkinson C, Pino-Chavez G, Wallwork J. Histopathology of cardiac xenograft rejection in the pig-to-baboon model. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2002 Apr; 21(4):474-84. PMID: 11927225.
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    78. McInnes EF, Jarrett RF, Langford G, Atkinson C, Horsley J, Goddard MJ, Cozzi E, Schuurman HJ. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder associated with primate gamma-herpesvirus in cynomolgus monkeys used in pig-to-primate renal xenotransplantation and primate renal allotransplantation. Transplantation. 2002 Jan 15; 73(1):44-52. PMID: 11792976.
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